GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF Clarias gariepinus FED WITH COPPENS AT A FREQUENCY OF ONCE AND TWICE DAILY

GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF Clarias gariepinus FED WITH COPPENS AT A FREQUENCY OF ONCE AND TWICE DAILY

CHAPTER ONE   1.0      INTRODUCTION  

Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, mollusks, crustacean, and the aquatic plant is necessary to meet the protein need of Nigerians. Over time, there has been an increase in fish production in Nigeria. Despite this increase in fish production, the desired result has not been attained. Quantitatively, details of fish production as of 2005 stood at 490,600 tons (FAO, 2003) from the artisan fishery, 56,300 tons from industry fishery through the use of trawlers, while fish importation stood at 61,150 tons. In meeting up with the growing need for fish production, aquaculture practice has been identified as a possible alternative, the reasons being that the activities of artisans and industrial fishery in our natural waters have led to over exploitation and degradation due to human activities in our coastal water. To fully bring aquaculture to its desired level, four production challenges have been identified. These are the challenges of feeding the fish stock in the pond, management of pond water supply, fish seeds provision and pond construction/establishment. The first two challenges: fish feeding and water quality management affect each other. The level of feeding of the stocks affects the water quality and the level of water quality affects the feeding performance of fish in the pond (George, 2001).

Fish like other animals need food to be able to carry out their metabolic activities. In aquaculture, fish feeding is either supplemental or complete (total supply). Supplemental feeding is when feeds are given to the animal at a minimal level to add to the natural food available for the fish in the pond water. These natural foods are in the form of phytoplankton and zooplanktons. The complete feeding is when the source of food fed to the fish is solely supplied by the farmer. In whichever case, the type of feeding practiced depends on the nature of the pond and the type of production the farmer is involved with (Michael, 1987; Michael et al., 2005).

The most popular cultured fish in Nigeria is the Catfish. It is naturally carnivorous, a bottom pond dweller, nocturnally very active and belongs to the family of Claridge (Willian, 1967; Idoho-Umeh, 2003). However, with the fish domestication, its modes of feeding and activities have been destabilized and modified. To this end, the feeding regime has become diverse but the thumb rule of feeding stock at an optimum level should be very economical so as to have savings in feed cost and the overall economic justification. Webster et al., (1992) reported that catfish can be fed once or twice daily and rainbow trout three times a day. In whichever case, the type of feeding practiced depends on the nature of the pond and the type of production; climatic conditions and economic status of the farmer dictate the feeding requirement. 

PROJECT TOPICS 

Various studies have been done in fish feeding (Collins and Delmendo, 1979; Sena and Brain, 1992) but much is still to be done in the area of the best time of the day and frequency to feed catfish so as to have good growth performance that will justify the high cost of feeding provided by the farmer. Determining the best frequency of feeding the catfish is therefore expected to help to maximize performance, discourage waste, and ensure the success of the enterprise. This will help to discourage the deterioration of water quality which may arise from the decomposition of feeds fed to the fish due to feeding at inappropriate time and frequency. This, in turn, is expected to help to minimize fish mortality due to pond water quality deterioration. The Overall production of the stock will also be enhanced (Norm, 2000). Hence, the need to study the growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fed at a frequency of once and twice daily for an enhanced yield derived from better and faster growth for the production of the catfish.

1.1  AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this research is to feed Clarias gariepinus at different frequencies of once and twice daily with the following specific objective:

to determine which of the feeding frequencies is more economical in the rearing of Clarias gariepinus.

1.2  JUSTIFICATION

This study is useful to fish farmers as it is expected to create awareness on the appropriate feeding frequency that can yield better growth in Clarias gariepinus culture. It is also expected to enable aquaculturists to be aware of the best economical method that yields better growth in different feeding frequencies within a short production period. Finally, the results are expected to be useful to commercial fish farmers in making managerial decisions in the production of Clarias gariepinus.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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