Plants have formed the basis of the traditional medicine system which has been used for thousands of years. Traditional medicine refers to health practices,  approaches, knowledge, and beliefs incorporating plant, animal, and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques, and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat or to diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well being (World Health Organization, 2003). In developing countries where orthodox medicines are quite expensive, traditional medicine is widely practiced thus, screening for antimicrobial active compounds from ethnomedicinal plants is vital so as to ascertain genuine active plants and active compounds. Ultimately, these phytochemicals will find their way into the arsenal of antimicrobial drugs prescribed by physicians (Cowan, 1999). Plants have been one of the main sources of medicaments either in the form of traditional preparations or pure active principles since the dawn of human civilization. The utilization of plant-based drugs in the world is flourishing and ever-increasing. India has a wealthy ancestry of science on plant-based drugs both for use in remedial and preventive medicine. Charaka Samhita reports the use of nearly 2000 vegetable remedies against various diseases. Nearly 60% of all pharmaceuticals are plant-based. 300000 plants have already been explored for their medicinal properties. Every culture, including western culture, has evolved an indigenous system of traditional healing. Traditional healing in different cultures has a long history of ancestors creating primitive medicine during their struggle against natural calamities and diseases. Equally while searching for food; ancient humans discovered that some foods have specific properties of relieving or eliminating certain diseases and maintaining good health. In recent years, secondary plant metabolites have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. It is anticipated that phytochemicals with good antibacterial activity will be used for the treatment of bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. During the last two decades, there has been a considerable increase in the study and use of medicinal plants all over the world, especially in advanced countries. There was also a tremendous increase in the international trade and commercial exploitation of herbal medicines over the counter labeled products. In some countries, herbal medicines are still a central part of the medical system e.g. China, Ethiopia, Argentina, and Papua New Guinea


Chloris gayana Kunth of the family of Poaceae and is commonly known as Rhode grass and it is mainly used for grazing animals and most people use it as a vegetable when cooking, As literature survey revealed that not much work had been reported on Chris gayana Kunth, in the present study, the leaf portion of the plant was investigated for its pharmacognostical properties.  Preliminary photochemical out followed by the isolation and characterization screening has been carried of chemical constituents and the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the various extracts, as well as the isolated compounds, were examined against microbes. In the present study, an endeavor has been made to find out the antibacterial and antifungal activity of various extracts obtained from the plant.  


ü  To extract and characterize compounds responsible for this claim

ü  This research is aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Chloris gayana Kunth used for the treatment of some illnesses caused by microorganisms.

ü  To analyze whether the plant extract has the capability to control the growth of the microorganism.              


The objectives of this study include the following: Antimicrobial investigation of the plant extracts. Collection and precise botanical identification of  the plant Determination of phytochemical ingredient contained in the plant


The scope of this research work is aimed at evaluating Chloris gayana Kunth found in Agbarho in Ughelli North local government area of Delta State, Nigeria. This will be done by evaluating the 3 systematical screening of Chloris gayana Kunth through phytochemical screening, antimicrobial (antibacterial/antifungal screening), so as to better understand their properties, safety, and efficiency


The choice of Chloris gayana Kunth for phytochemical and antimicrobial analysis is based on the plant’s specialty and diverse use in the treatment of various illnesses amongst the Agbarho people of Delta State and its environs. This study will also aid with discovering other possible sources of producing anti-microbial drugs


Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. There is growing interest in correlating the phytochemical constituents of a medicinal plant with its pharmacological activity.  Phytochemicals are primary and secondary compounds. Chlorophyll, proteins, and common sugars are included in primary constituents and secondary compounds have terpenoid, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds. The secondary metabolites of plants were found to be a source of various phytochemicals that could be directly used as intermediates for the production of new drugs.

The currently available screening methods for the detection of antimicrobial activity of natural products fall into three groups, including bio autographic, diffusion, and dilution methods.


Chloris gayana Kunth is a species of grass known by the common name Rhodes grass. It is native to Africa but it can be found throughout the tropical and subtropical world as a naturalized species.

It can grow in many types of habitat. It is also cultivated in some areas as a palatable graze for animals and a groundcover to reduce erosion and quickly re-vegetate denuded soil. It is tolerant of moderately saline and alkaline soils and irrigation.

This is a perennial grass that can reach one half to nearly three meters in height and spreads via stolons. It forms tufts and can spread into wide monotypic stands. The inflorescence is a single or double whorl of fingerlike racemes up to 15 centimeters long. Each spikelet in the raceme is a few millimeters long and contains one or two fertile florets and up to four sterile florets.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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