ENUMERATON AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ON USED HANDKERCHIEFS IN MALES

 ENUMERATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ON USED HANDKERCHIEFS IN MALES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION  

Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and are found in almost every area around human bodies.  Some are specifically found in certain regions of the body as a normal flora where they live as commensals with a man.  This association is important in protecting the body against other infectious diseases. Each area of the body surface acquires a characteristic flora of organisms well adapted to growth in that particular environment.  These residents (normal flora) tend to suppress the intruders either by competition for space and food supply or by the production of metabolites that are antagonistic to the survival of the intruder. These residents could be dislodged from their environment when sneezing, coughing, belching, yawning or could be destroyed by regular use of antiseptic soaps or creams on the body surfaces. Handkerchiefs often used in males for wiping face, closing of the mouth and nose when expressing these reflex activities, therefore constitute an abode for bacteria.  Furthermore, bacteria found in handkerchiefs could differ from one individual to another as the bacteria found could be reflective of the environment and pathological conditions of the individual using the handkerchief.  For instance, an individual with upper respiratory tract infection is likely to dislodge strains of pathogenic microbes along sides with the normal flora in these regions. Enumeration of bacteria on a used handkerchief in males can be done using microscopic cell count and viable cell counting.  Microscopic counts can be done on either sample dried on slides or samples in liquid.  A viable cell counting is the one that is able to divide and form offspring. Viable cell counting is also called plate count and there are at least two ways of performing plate count: the spread plate and pour plate method. In the spread plate method, a volume of appropriately diluted culture is spread over the surface of an agar plate using a sterile glass spreader.  The plate is then incubated until colonies appear, and the number of colonies formed is counted. In the pour plate method, a known volume of culture is pipetted in a sterile Petri dish plate.  Molten agar medium is then added and mix well by gentle swirling of the plate on the benchtop.  Because the sample is mixed with a molten agar medium, the bacteria to be counted must be able to withstand brief temperature exposure to the temperature of the molten agar (45 – 50oC).  Here, the colonies formed are counted throughout the plate and not just on the agar surface as in the spread plate method. In identifying bacteria, the morphological and biochemical characteristics of the bacteria, are evaluated.  The appearance and the microscopic description of the bacteria are examined with the aid of a light compound microscope. From the growth of the bacteria (pure culture), the specimen to be viewed under the microscope can be prepared as a smear or as a wet mount.  A stain is used to contrast the specimen from the background.  This strain could be basic or acid stain.  Basic stain, for example, methylene blue and crystal violet, are cationic and have a positive charge.  They are ideal for staining chromosomes and the cell membrane of the bacteria.  The acid stains are anionic and have a negative charge, and are used to stain cytoplasmic material and organelles or inclusions.  Common examples are eosin and picric acid. There are two types of stains – simple and differential.  A simple stain has a single basic dye that is used to show shapes of cells and structures within a cell while a differential stain consists of two or more dyes and is used in the procedures to identify bacterially.  One of the most commonly used differentials stains the gram stain.  Gram-positive bacteria stain purple while Gram-negative bacteria stain pink.  Other biochemical tests like the Indole test, Urease test, Catalase reaction, Oxidase reaction etc will help in further characterization of the bacteria identified from the handkerchief.            Identification of Gram-Positive Cocci Gram-positive cocci can be identified by the growth on blood and chocolate agar and the catalase test.  The catalase test is used to differentiate those bacteria that produce the enzymes catalase, such as staphylococcus from non-catalase producing bacteria such as streptococci.  For catalase-positive, gram-positive cocci, a coagulase test could be used to further differentiate them.  Staphylococcus aureus is coagulase-positive whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis is negative to the coagulase test.  Streptococci are catalase-negative gram-positive cocci and are further classified on the basis of their type of hemolysis, A (partial) and B (complete) hemolysis on blood agar, Alpha-haemolytic streptococci, streptococcal viridian's and Streptococcal pneumonia can be differentiated by the optochin disc susceptibility test.  The B-haemolytic streptococci are group according to the Lancefield classification.Identification of Gram-Negative Cocci Members of this group can be identified using fermentation patterns.  In addition, catalase and oxidase tests can also be performed.  It can further be identified by growing them on Thayer-Martin medium and nutrient agar.  

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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