AMELIORATING ROLE OF N.P.K. FERTILIZER ON THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF Ni ON (SORGHUM) ROOT ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES

AMELIORATING ROLE OF N.P.K. FERTILIZER ON THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF Ni ON (SORGHUM) ROOT ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES

TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Title Page                                                                        Certification                                                                 Dedication                                                                     Acknowledgment                                                          Table of Contents                                                           Abstract                                                                   

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction and Literature Review                        

1.1   Introduction                                                           

Literature Review                                                     Definition of heavy metals                                             Characteristics of Nickel                                          Nickel in the environment                                          Biological roles of nickel                                        Absorption of nickel by plant                                  Accumulation of Nickel in plants                             Nickel and photosynthesis                                      Effects of nickel on plant respiration                               Metabolic effects of nickel                                                Effects of nickel on enzyme activity                 Mechanism of nickel toxicity                           Strategies of plant tolerance to nickel toxicity  Management of nickel toxicity                         Land management procedure                         

1.2.13.2   Phytoremediation                                             1.2.14      The use of micro-organisms to mitigate nickel toxicity                                                            22

Scientific classification of Sorghum                     Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of

Sorghum                                                                  25 1.5   Classification of sorghum                                                28 1.6   Uses of Sorghum                                                     29 1.7   Germination / Growth Stages of Sorghum                       32 1.7.1  Growth Stages                                                               32 1.72 Nutrient Uptake                                                       36 1.8   Diseases of Grain Sorghum                                     37 1.9   Activities that induce Germination                          38 1.10 Metabolism of Germinating Seeds                           40 1.11 NPK (15-15-15) Fertilizer                                         41 1.11.1Catalase                                                                 44 1.12 History of Catalase                                                   45 1.12.1  Activities of Catalase                                            46 1.12.2 Molecular mechanism of catalase action                      47 1.13 Superoxide Dismutase                                             48 1.13.1Types of Superoxide Dismutase                             49 1.13.2 Physiological Importance of Superoxide Dismutase      51 1.13.3 Use of Superoxide Dismutase in Cosmetic            52 1.14 Peroxidase                                                               52 1.14.1 Isozymes of Glutathione Peroxidase                      53 1.15 Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species           53 1.16 Objective of Study                                              56

CHAPTER TWO

Materials and Method                                              55

2.1   Materials                                                                  55 2.1.1        Contaminant                                                           55

Fertilizer                                                                  55 Quantity of soil used                                                        55 Source of Soil                                                          55 Source of Soybean seed used                                   56 Instruments/Apparatus used                                  56 Reagents used for the study                                     57 Methods                                                                   59 Preparation of Soil                                                   59 Contamination of Soil                                              59 Viability test of Seeds                                               59 Experimental design                                                        59 Biochemical analysis                                                       62 Estimation of total protein                                   61 Estimation of malondialdehyde level                   64 Estimation of Superoxide Dismutase activity               66 Estimation of Catalase activity                             68 Estimation of peroxidase activity                         70

2.2.6          Statistical Analysis                                                        72

CHAPTER THREE

Results                                                                    73

3.1   Soil Analysis                                                            78

CHAPTER FOUR

Discussion and Conclusion                                     79

Bibliography                                                                    83 Appendix One: Reagents Preparation                                       97

Appendix Two:  Statistics

 

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