THE ROLES OF GIS ON THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES
Background of Study
Events, assets, and facilities are all location-bound. For centuries, maps have been the major source for depicting land-related information. The management of resources for sustainable development has spurred new ways and techniques for planning and development. Geographic Information System, a computerized tool that consists of (computerized) map, a database of descriptive information (attributes), and a set of software that performs complex spatial operations, is one of the new technologies available for management of resources. Using GIS, management, and allocation of resources through the effective use of shared data can provide a better service through efficient and effective decision-making. The inclusion of photographs, video, and sound can improve the GIS performance turning it into a more realistic tool for spatial analysis. Education is the bedrock of the development of any nation;it is one of the most important factors in Nigeria’s quest to become one of the largest economies by the year 2020. However, with the recent state of education in Nigeria, measures need to be taken to overhaul the system in order for it to serve as a reliable and efficient vehicle for the attainment of the vision. Primary education is a program of public education followed immediately by secondary or college schooling. It begins generally at the age of six and continues for five to six years. According to Encarta (2009) public school is an elementary or secondary school controlled and maintained by civil authority, acting through official board expending public money, and open to all local children. Public schools include grade or grammar schools, junior and senior high schools, and vocational schools. Private school is program of instruction that is created and controlled, operated, and principally financed by private individuals and groups rather than by government. Unlike public elementary and secondary schools, which are free, nearly all private schools charge some form of tuition. Many definitions exist for GIS; some of these definitions seem to restrict GIS to a particular application. Meanwhile, Worboys, (1995), defines Geographic Information System (GIS) as “a computer-based information system that enables capture, modeling, manipulation, retrieval, analysis and presentation of geographically referenced data”.
First, GIS is related to other database applications, but with an important difference – information is linked to a spatial reference. Other databases may contain locational information (such as street addresses, codes, etc.), but a GIS database uses geo-references as the primary means of storing and accessing information. Second, GIS integrates technology. Whereas other technologies might be used only to analyze aerial photographs and satellite images, to create statistical models, or to draft maps, these capabilities are all offered together in GIS.
Third, GIS, with its array of functions, should be viewed as a process rather than as merely software or hardware GIS for making decisions. The way in which data is entered, stored, and analyzed within a GIS must determine the way information will be used for specific research or decision-making task. To see GIS as merely a software or hardware system is to miss the crucial role it can play in a comprehensive decision-making process.
This project intends to establish the importance of GIS inaccurate decision-making for the effective management of educational facilities. GIS for the management of educational facilities in public primary schools in Uvwie local government area of Delta state Nigeria is studied. It is demonstrated in this paper that GIS is a very important tool in the management of educational facilities. This project is highly significant in Nigeria and many other third-world countries where management of educational facilities is done manually and therefore slow and inaccurate. A GIS database for public primary schools in Uvwie and environs will be of great importance to the state government as well as the cooperation of all Nigerians, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector in achieving objectives of education. It is extremely important to access the facilities through the use of a GIS database. With this database, there is a potential to improve the efficiency of schools through the planning and management of resources and the display of geographic knowledge. Analysis from the database can be carried out in several significant ways. A GIS database created can assist the present government in the proper distribution of schools, improve the existing infrastructure and provide additional infrastructure for planning and management of educational resources. The research will enable us to know the spatial and temporal distribution of public primary schools in the study area. In the last part of this project are some recommendations and conclusions.
1.2 School Mapping Activity The last phase in the planning process, when the physical facilities that are to be provided under the plan are actually located or sited; that is, to decide where (in what community or geographical area) the school, laboratories, workshops, and such other educational facilities are to be built or provided. It is suggested to undertake a detailed school mapping activity in each of the district covering school and non-school based data in doing this activity, the present stock of data at the National Primary Education Commission (NPEC), State Primary Education Board (SPEB), and Local Government Education Authorities (LGEAs), center or cell should be considered to avoid duplication. Establish close linkage with the other government agencies like Ministry of Defense, Natural Resources or Environment, Population Census, planning Officials, and others to ensure that the requirements of school mapping as a tool for the in-depth analysis of the existing situation of the district can be fully addressed. This will also build- up and update the present stock of data of these centers and cells.
1.3Statement of the Problem The performance of primary school students in the conjugative assessment examination in Delta state calls for proper investigation. Although, several scholars have proposed various factors responsible for the poor performance of students, few research have been dedicated to the correlation between class size, school population, learning facilities, the location and spatial distribution of educational facilities, distance of a school from home and academic achievement of students. This study, therefore, looks at how the above-listed factors affect students’ academic performance in public primary schools in Uvwie Local Government Area.
Aim of the study.
The prime focus of this project is on the roles of GIS on the spatial pattern of distribution of educational facilities as well as provides a necessary database for effective (efficient, serviceable, or operative, available for useful work) educational planning efforts and effective performances of pupils in Effurun-Uvwie Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria.
Objectives of School Mapping.
The objectives of the study include:
Access the location and pattern of the spatial distribution of educational facilities.
Create a database for the educational facilities. Determine the maximum walking distance of a child to school. Suggest location of future educational facilities Determine the Environmental Impacts on educational facilities distribution
1.6 Scope of School Mapping With the recent development in non-formal education in areas such as literacy programs, post-literacy courses, vocations training, and adult education, school mapping should cover not only the distribution of formal educational facilities but also the non-formal educational facilities. The process of school mapping covers the following specific areas for expansion and improvement of facilities: 1. Rationalization of existing facilities by:
Shifting, closure, or amalgamation of institutions; Optimum utilization of teaching and non-teaching staff; Optimum utilization of buildings, equipment, furniture, etc.
2. Provision of new or additional facilities by:
Opening of new schools or upgrading of existing ones; Providing additional teaching and non-teaching staff; Providing new or additional buildings, furniture, and equipment in institutions.
3. Determination of the maximum walking distance of a child to school. Thus, school mapping has the double function of securing greater equality of education opportunities and at the same time of rationalizing the use of existing facilities in an effort to optimize the limited material and manpower resources.
1.7.0 Study Area 1.7.1 Location Effurun is situated in Uvwie LGA, Delta state, Nigeria, its geographical coordinates are 5° 33' 0" North, 5° 47' 0" East, and its original name (with diacritics) is Efferun. Effurun is the headquarters of Uvwie LGA which was carved out of the then Okpe LGA along with Udu LGA on the 4th of December, 1996. The indigenous inhabitants are the Uvwie people, organized into four quarters. Each quarter is headed by a traditional administrator known as the Umuevworo and at the pinnacle of the traditional administration of the people is the paramount ruler, the Ovie. The LGA is urban with an estimated population of 172,395 going by the population census spread across Effurun, Ekpan, Ugberikoko, Ugboroke, Ugbomro, Uredjo (Enerhen), and others. It is one of the 22 Kingdoms of Urhobo speaking people of Delta State and has a king, Ovie, who rules over the traditional institution of the town. The Ovie of Uvwie is HRM Emmanuel Sideso Abe I.
Uvwie Metropolis has expanded due to infrastructural development to include boundary towns such as Warri, Udu, Ughelli South, Ughelli North, and Okpe local Government Areas in recent years, with various road networks linking these places into one or the other. Each of these towns has its own administrative structure. The Local Government Area is urban with an estimated population of 188,728 going by the 21, March 2006 population census spread across Effurun, Ekpan, Ugberikoko, Ugboroke, Ugbomro, Uredjo (Enerhen), and others. Its area is 95km2 and Density: 1,986.6 inh./km2. 1.7.2 Geology Geologically, the rock types are recent sediment (post cretaceous). The major soil types can be related to climatic factors, vegetation, lithology, and topography which gave birth to the hydromorphic soils found in the area which is seasonally or permanently waterlogged. The influence of poor drainage is reflected in the whitish or grayish colors due to the reduction of the oxides in the soil. The extent of profile development of the seasonally waterlogged soil is limited by the depth of the permanent water table. 1.7.3 Climate Effurun has two main weather conditions annually. The wet season begins towards the end of March when the tropical maritime air mass is prevalent and ends in November, often abruptly. The dry season begins with the onset of the tropical continental air mass, which is predominant between the months of December and February. The months of December and January are usually cold-dry months. The daily average high and low temperatures are in January 12 oc & 13 oc, May 8 oc & 8.5oc and September 6 oc & 10oc, while the corresponding rainfalls are; 20mm, 10mm and 60mm respectively.
A significant percentage of which has been destroyed by pollution and other petroleum related activities. The vegetation found in the study area includes mangrove and fresh water swamp forest. The mangrove forest is edaphic community common on muddy coastal shores, tidal swamps and associated creeks and lagoons. The environment of this forest formation is dominated mainly by changes in soil factors, especially those associated with distance from the sea, frequency and duration of subversion degree of salinity of sea water, soil aeration and soil fertility. As these changes vary from place to place, a number of edaphic communities are usually recognized as the peaty swamp, fresh water swamp, riperia tide and mangrove forest. These are the reasons for the existence of both mangrove and fresh water in the study.
The mangrove swamp appears essentially alike in its physiognomy and its ecological relationship throughout its entire world range. The flora consists of trees and shrubs. The dominant gums in all the area is Rhizophora (red mangrove). Also associated with the study area are palm trees and lianas in areas where the vegetation has been reduced to dense thickest (secondary forest). Trees are slender with stilt root (Pneumatophores) but however, where the forest has been disturbed raphia palm spread quickly to dominate the entire valley swamp.
1.7.5 Social Economics Activities of the People.
It is a gateway town in and out of the city of Warri; also it is a border town to Osubi Airport in Osubi. A centre of civilization for the Urhobo people, Effurun is the headquarters of the Uvwie local government of Delta state, Nigeria. It is one of the Urhobo Kingdoms and has a king, Ovie, who rules over the traditional institution of the town. It is a gateway town in and out of the city of Warri; the indigenous inhabitants are the Uvwie people, organized into four quarters. Each quarter is headed by a traditional administrator known as the Umuevworo and at the pinnacle of the traditional administration of the people is the paramount ruler, the Ovie. It is densely populated region and has many of the city's finest exotic hotels for relaxation such as Wellington Hotel, Hotel, Excel, Mega Hilton hotel, Casa De Pedro Hotel, Tegaton Hotel. The area also includes higher institutions such as Federal University of Petroleum Resource-Effurun, Petroleum Training Institute-Effurun, Warri Business School, Centre for Peace International and Mediation. Companies such as Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation/Refinery (NNPC), Pipeline Products and Marketing Company (PPMC), and the Nigeria Gas Company (NGC) at Ekpan. Others are Effurun Army Barracks, Effurun, Jeremi or J.FM and Crown FM (Private radio station), Uvwie modern market, Ovie Palace, Effurun.