Title page 




Table of content 


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the study 

1.2 Relevance of the study 

1.3 Objective of the study   

1.4 Statement of the problem 

1.5 Limitations of the study 

1.6 Definition of key terms and concept 

1.7 Organization of the study 


2.0 Literature Review: Introduction

2.1 Concept needed for debt 

2.2 Setting the stage for successful 

2.3 Strategies and sand technique for credit collection 

2.4 Effective use of executive customer

2.5 Handing difficult customer 

2.6 Information technology 

2.7 Knowing your customer successfully (accessing qualitative management issue) 

2.8 Time management 

2.9 Cans flow statement as in relation to debt recovery


3.0 Research methodology 

3.1 Area of study (Union Bank Plc) 

3.2 Sources of data 

3.3 Sampling methods 

3.4 Method of data analysis 

3.5 Limitation of the methodology 


4.0 Data presentation analysis and findings 

4.1 Data presentation 

4.2 Data analysis

4.3 Findings 


5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation 

5.1 Summary 

5.1 Conclusion 

5.2 Recommendation 





Before the advert or existing of money, transaction was by “barter” this involve or direct exchange of goods for foods and service for services its shortcoming was that is involve a double incidence of wants.  

And later compounded by indivisibility of certain goods and services.

The early bankers. The Jew in Lombard Street, Italy, transacted their business in the market place. The word “bank” itself is derived from Italian word “BANIO” meaning whenever a bank failed his bank will be broken up by the angry customer hence the “Bankruptcy” meaning insolvency i.e. on able to fulfill is financial obligation. Which is derived from the Italian word “BANKORUPTO” (Broken bench).

The Italian in Lombard later liquidated because they lend money to king which is not repay back this money. Then can the advent of goldsmith.

The goldsmith making in London began to expand their business through safe keeping og valuable and money when such valuable and money is deposited with the goldsmith receipt would be issued, as the business grows, the receipt is then intercharge of bank notes.

Then goldsmith realize that such money kept with them can be lent out to the third party through collection of interest. In order to secure deposits money and valuable, the British Governments establish the bank note.

The competition of business raised, excluding the bank which can trace the history to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.


In Nigeria the earlier activity was carried out by “Elder Depter” and company with the African banking corporation in 1982/1984. 

The bank British West Africa took business is the sole bank in the country. Now call First Bank of Nigeria (Formally Standard Bank of Nigeria Limited), 1917 the colonial bank emancipated new bank called Union Bank of Nigeria Limited.

First indigenous bank was the industrial and Commercial Bank of 1929 but failed in 1930. Nigeria Mercantile Bank come on 1931 and founded in 1936 National Bank of Nigeria Limited was opened in 1933. The came in 1945. It was followed by African Continental Bank on 1945 (Tinubu Bank) sooner French and Brutish United later to become United Bank of Africa (UBA) in 1949. 

Due to frequent collapse of bank and lost of depositors fund. The need for legislation to protest public fund arise the first banking or finance appeal lest in 1952 and ruled that all bank must operate through the issue of license from the government, the 1958 ordinance come, which establish the Central Bank of Nigeria, which took over the issue of note and regulation of monetary statutory.


Due to come structural and operational change banking industry.

The need for greater and better control.

The Banking of 2009

  There are outstanding changes not yet made by the editorial team to banking act 2009. These change will be listed when you open the content using the table of contents below. Any change that have already been made by the team appear in the content and are referenced with annotations.


The CBN initiated by rural banking scheme whereby Commercial Bank where allocated 200 branches in the first phase. 226 branch in the second phase and 300 branch under the third phase. The scheme create awareness on the important of banking in the rural areas and,

i. Central bank

ii. Commercial bank

iii. Merchant bank 

iv. And specialized.


       The main purpose of the study is to English various management. On debt recovery technique and it effect on profitability in the country. It aims of establishing how find can be source invested regulated by invested through banking.


This study will be tremendous benefit to operator in banking industry as a debt manager whom will be expose to various of find to a bank and how this fund can be ideally utilized and retrieved from borrowers. Establish the bank note.


Every commercial enterprise arise of which bank and not exception, require fund either for expension long term or to finance investment in trade. The sufficient utilization of these funds in an important factors that determines the success or failure of the organization.

The problem associated with this needs is whose how and is what volume or quality will this fund be sought.


The study cover various sources and utilization of debt available to a bank it will cover debt recovery management activity in Union Bank for a period of 5 years between 1996-2000.

Also the activities if treasure department relating to sourcing and utilization of debt in the bank (Union Bank will be examined).


Debt recovery: A debt recovery person must combine many skill to be able to tackle numerous complex situations.

Management: This is directing task of an organization resources to achieve organization goal. Function of manager are planning controlling motivation leading etc.  

Profitability index: Very important to financial institution like bank because it is and evidence of strength and progress. It also helps to generate confidence bank maximum revenue and minimize lot to make profit.   

Bank: A banker is a dealer in capital or dealer in money, he is an intermediate party between leader and borrows. He borrows and party and land to another.


  Chapter one compiles of introduction and statement of problem and background to the study.

Chapter two comprises the literature review that carry out the introduction to the area project work. 

Chapter three consists of the area of study which is known as Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.

Chapter four has the introduction and analysis and interpretation of result.

In chapter five it is made up to summary of the work and recommendation of the work.



The existence of an effective banking in industry is necessary for every economy. It enable the necessary environment for economy growth and development, through it’s role in intermediating funds from surplus to deflect its order to appreciate the effect of debt in the banking industry. We like instantly on the varied view of debt recovery influence.

Change influence total spading in the economy (in order word cash flow statement) (Fisher in 2002) with other classified writers hold the view in the short run debt influence was directed by interest that were “strictly initially through costing subsequently.

But in the volume of money after the rate of interest. Usually approximately by the long term government bond rate which effect investment and possible consumption. 

      Thus, the link between net wealth of the private sector and consumption was analyzed by Pigous (2005) and Pitman (2008) in the firm of real cash quantity of money could affect real aggregate demand. 

Even if they did not after the rate of interest. Debt recovery is an important in company very few companies can function properly on cash business or without obtaining credit from financial institution. Companies that so not give or take credit are usually very small in size and have limitation in expanding. 

Although offering credit term to customer is tantamount to expansion and acquiring big customer, there is always an element of risk involved.     

Therefore, many company implement strict credit policies to minimize their credit loss arises from bad debt. However, a good credit policy covers a;; aspect of the business transaction ranging from review of potential customers creditability to ascertaining the amount and duration of the credit policy there is no way that it can eliminate loss totally.

Moreover, a good effective credit policy could help to determine calculated loss minimized its impact of the business. 

To make a good judgement on the customer credit worthiness.

It is important to take note of the following points:

i. The company must have a good bank re cord of sales achievement.

ii. The sale and profit must be on a gradually increase year by year. A gradual dividing sales and profit it is a bad indicator of the company’s future performance. 

iii. A good cash flow management is important to ensure the company practices that.   

Debit is one of the major troubles that most of the people go through every year and find. It difficult to find a way out debt recovery. Debt cause great stress to those who are entirely stuck into it. The debt management programs help both the individuals an companies in a speedy debt recovery. Though there are programs that help in getting of  a debt.

The debt management companies counsels the clients about the credit and analyze the whole of the debts.

They will also explain how the debt management system works an all problem ways out of debt.



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