ASSESSMENT OF TRACE METAL CONTAMINATION IN CHICKEN MEAT CONSUMPTION (A CASE STUDY IN UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE)
TABLE OF CONTENTTitle Page………………..iCertification……………iiDedication………………iiiAcknowledgment……….ivTable of content………v
CHAPTER ONE1.0 INTRODUCTION1.1 THE EFFECTS OF TRACE METALS ON MAN1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER TWO2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER THREE3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS3.1 SAMPLE COLLECTION3.2 SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AND COOKING3.3 DIGESTION OF SAMPLE3.4 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS
CHAPTER FOUR4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION4.1 RESULTS: 4.2 DISCUSSION4.2.1 NICKEL 4.2.2 LEAD4.2.3 CADMIUM4.2.4 CHROMIUM 4.2.5 IRON2.4.6 ZINC
CHAPTER FIVE5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 CONCLUSION 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONREFERENCESCHAPTER ONE1.0 INTRODUCTION Chicken is a variable food source rich in many of the essential nutrients including protein (essential amino acid), minerals (inn, Zinc, selenium), vitamins (e.g vitamin E), and fat (example omega 3 fatty acids) (Schonfeldt and Gibson, 2008). Poultry meats are also used in the production of several seasonings such as magi and knorr chicken flavor cubes in Nigeria (Babagana et. al, 2013). Despite the nutritional benefits of chicken meat, the rate of contamination of chicken meat is worrisome because of its effect on humans who end up consuming them. Among the contaminants, trace metals contamination remains a major source of concern worldwide. This is because they are neither beneficial nor essential, but can cause severe toxicological damage even at low concentration. (Akan et. al, 2010). According to Duruibe et. al., (2007), examples of trace metals that are potentially harmful are aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, nickel, etc. The metal toxicity affects both wild and native avian populations causing death annually, (Williams et al, 2004). Contamination of poultry meat is a serious threat because of their bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in the food chain.Trace metals are mostly introduced into poultry farms through anthropogenic sources such as contaminated feeds, dirty slaughterhouses, and contaminated water (El-Jabel et. al., 2013). Pollution in poultry farms poses a serious problem which many countries in the world are trying to tackle. (Alakhder et al, 2013).
1.1 THE EFFECTS OF TRACE METALS ON MAN LEAD: The toxicity of lead (Pb) is attributed to the fact that interferes with the normal function of enzymes. Bipolar lead forms strong bonds with enzymes bearing sulfhydryl groups thus, inhibiting their action. Pb is toxic to the blood and the nervous, urinary, gastric, and general systems. Furthermore, it is also implicated in causing carcinogenesis mutagenesis in experimental animals (Bruins et al, 2000).CADMIUM: Cadmium is considered to be one of the most toxic metals. In addition, it may accumulate in the human body and may induce kidney dysfunction, skeletal damage, reproduction deficiencies, prostate cancer, mutation and foetal (embryonic death), (Figueiredo et al, 1998).CHROMIUM: In humans, long-term exposure to chromium can cause kidney and liver damage to circulatory and nerve tissue. Chromium often accumulates in human life, adding to the danger of eating chicken meat that may have been exposed to higher levels of chromium, (Blasliak et al,1999).ZINC: Zinc (Zn) is an essential element needed by our body in small amounts. Without enough Zinc in the diet, there could be loss of appetite, decreased immune function, slow wound healing, and skin sores, (Brown, 2003).NICKEL: Nickel (Ni) is a widely distributed 24th element in order of natural abundance in the earth’s crust (Kaspizak et al, 2003). Humans may be exposed to nickel-containing compounds through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact Nickel exposure may result in adverse reactions at the site of contact, gastrointestinal tract, skin or respiratory tract, or systematically in kidneys. Nickel exposure is also related to cancer development (Shayne, 1998).
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This study is conducted to:1. Assess the level of trace metal contamination in chicken meat consumed in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.2. To evaluate the effects on different cooking practices on the trace metal concentrations in chicken meat..