Roebuck et al noted that anthropometric data varies considerably for individuals within a family or a nation and between nations.

Anthropometry refers to the measurement of living human body dimensions for the purpose of understanding human body physical variation as it plays an important role in plastic surgery, prosthetics, and so on for data collection. Statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are useful for apparel sizing, forensics, and optimise products.

Many studies have defined human body parts and their proportion to each other morphometrically. In humans, the ear is the defining feature of the face and its structure shows signs of sex and age. The human ear is divided into external, middle and internal part. The pinna and external acoustic meatus forms the external ear. The lateral surface of the pinna is irregularly concave, faces slightly forward and displays numerous eminences and depressions. These structures do not merely act as trumpets; they are the first series of stimulus modifiers in the auditory apparatus.(Standrings, 2008). The importance of anthropometric data was stressed by Abeyshekera and Shahnavaz when they stated that a piece of equipment designed to fit 90% of the male United States population would fit about 90% of Germans, 80% Frenchmen, 65% of Italians, 45% of Japanese, 20% of Thais, and 10% percent of Vietnamese. (Abeyshekera, 1989).

Saha observed that there were differences in anthropometric data of people from different regions of India (Saha, 1985). Similarly in Nigeria different regions of people presents different anthropometric data. Jung and Jung surveyed the dimensions and characteristics of Korean ears and found that age gender and different ethnic populations were determinants of ear dimensions. (Jung et al, 2003). A study carried out in India observed that North-West Indians have smaller ear lobules when compared to Caucasians and Japanese population but similar to those found among the Onge tribe of the Andhra (India) and Newars of Nepalby Sharma et al.

Since anthropometric data should be established for the user population as anthropometric data for Igbinedion University students is scant, the present study attempts to provide anthropometric data for the ear. The study is intended to describe the anatomical height and width of the ear amongst Igbinedion University Students (aged from 16-35years). From these data, it is envisaged that anatomical and morphological differences and changes of the ear in relation to age and sex in our population would be established.


There is no documented anthropometric data of the ear on an average of 16-35 years of age among Igbinedion university students. This project focuses on documenting the anthropometric data of the ear of Igbinedion University students of the above age and as well as discuss the relevance and uses of anthropometric data in identification and application to forensic science.


The study is based on well-established hypothesis that the human external ear is a highly variable structure. Therefore the main objective is to investigate to what extent this variability exists. It is not possible to undoubtedly prove the theory that all ears are unique, therefore, the null hypothesis is that some human ears are the same. The hypothesis would be accepted, if two ears are found to be exactly alike.


The scope of this project is aimed at investigating the range of variation seen in the anthropometry of the ear among Igbinedion University Okada students between the ages of 16-35 years. The study focused on various components of the external ear and how they vary. A combination of various previous methods as well as some new initiatives was employed. As the variation technique used for the study is through measuring the length and width of the external ear structure.

The significance of the study was aimed to answer the following questions:

How much variation is displayed in ear size Does sexual dimorphism exist in external ear structure? What range of variation is seen between the two ears of a single individual? How does age affect ear structure? Are all ears different?


a)    ANTHROPOMETRY: Anthropometry can be defined as the scientific study of the measurements and proportions of the human body.

b)    DIMORPHISM: Dimorphism isthe existence among animals of same species of two distinct form that differs in one or more characteristics, such as colourization, size, age, shape or sex; Sexual dimorphism on the other hand is a phenotypic differentiation between males and females of the same species

c)     MORPHOMETRY: The process of measuring the external shape and dimension of landforms, living organisms or other objects.

d)    MORPHOLOGY: The study of the forms of things, in particular; a particular form, shape or structure.

e)     OVIA NORTH EAST: This is a local government in Okada town region in the Edo state area of Nigeria containing populations from different tribes.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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