The aim of this study was to assess the plantar arch index among residents in ovia northeast L.G.A and to determine the prevalence of pes planus. A total of 380 subjects comprising of 194 males and 186 females aged 16-35 years were used for the study. The dynamic footprints of the subjects were obtained using endorsing ink and plain duplicating paper. The plantar arch index was determined as the ratio of the mid arch width to the mid heel width from the foot prints. Descriptive statistics for each variable included mean and standard deviation(SD). Mean Image 2SD was regarded as normal but greater than that that was considered as pes planus. After results were analyzed, a total of 60 males and 53 females had pes planus. The overall prevalence of pes planus was 29.72% with a prevalence of 15.78% among males and 13.94% among females. Bilateral pes planuswas commoner among males 4(1.05%) than females 2(0.52%). The results showed that the prevalence of pes planus was higher(P<0.05) among males than females in our study. 0(0%)cases of Pes Cavus was reported in this research,74(19.47%) males were normal, they didn’t have Pes planus or Pes Cavus, 100(26.317%) were normal, they didn’t have Pes planus or Pes Cavus, 


Title page - - - - - - - - - i

Dedication - - - - - - - - - - ii

Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - - iii

Certification-       -        -         -         -         -         -        -         -          - iv

Abstract-     -        -         -         -        -         -        -         -        -  - v

Table of content - - - - - - - - vi

List of tables-     -       -             -            -          -           -              - - vii

List of abbreviations -    -             -       -           -             -            - - viii



 Background to the study- - - - - - - - 1 

 Statement of problem-         -         -         -        -         -         - - - 2

Aims And Objectives Of the study-        -          -         -        -         -         -   3

Significance of the study-     -          -         -        -        -          - - - 3

 Research Question-      -        -         -           -        -        -          - - 4

 Scope of the study-       -        -         -           -         -        -         - - 4

Limitation - - - - - - - - - - 4

 Operational definition of terms-     -           -         -        - - - 5


2.0 Literature review - - - - - - - - 6

2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - -6

2.2 Anatomy of the foot - - - - - - - - -7

2.3 The general osteology and foot shape - - - - - -9

2.4 Arches of the foot - - - - - - - - -10

2.5 Pes Cavus - - - - - - - - -18

2.6 Epidemiology of plantar arch index and prevalence of flat feet - -20


3.0 Methodology - - - - - - - - - -2 4

3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - - - -24

3.2 Study setting - - - - - - - - - -24

3.3 Study population - - - - - - - - - -24

3.4 Sample size determination - - - - - - -24

3.5 Sampling techniques - - - - - - - -24

3.6 Instruments of data collection - - - - - - -25

3.7 Method of data collection - - - - - - - -25

3.8 Method of data analysis - - - - - - - -26

3.9 Inclusion and exclusion criteria- - - - - - - - 26


4.0 Results - - - - - - - - - - -27

4.1 Demographic characteristics of participants- - - - -27


5.0 Discussion, conclusion, recommendation - - - - - 32

5.1 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - -36

5.2 Recommendation - - - - - - - - -36

5.3 References  -      -       -      -       -       -        -        -        -        -         -         37

5.4 Appendices -        -       -       -        -         -          -        -         -          -        42




There is a functional relationship that exists between the structure of the arch of the foot and the biomechanics of the lower limb. The arch of the foot provides an elastic, springy connection between the forefoot and hindfoot. This relationship ensures that most of the forces incurred during weight bearing can be dissipated before reaching the long bones of the leg and thigh.

The arch of the foot demonstrates two extremes of anatomical structural position—the high arch characterizes of the pes cavus and the flat arch the pes planus. Although three distinct arches function to support the foot, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) has been found to be the arch of clinical significance in both these disorders. Problems and mal-alignments originating specifically with the MLA ultimately affect the functioning of the muscles and joints of the ankle, knee, hip, and low back, all of which depend on the base of support provided by the MLA.

The prevalence of pes planus declines with age, being higher in children with ligament laxity and early shoe wearing which impairs longitudinal arch development (Hernandez et al., 2007). The lower limb, and particularly the foot, is amongst the most distinctive characteristics of human anatomy (Hernandez et al., 2007). Footprint of hominoids already demonstrated the existence of plantar arch 3.7 million years ago (Hernandez et al., 2007). The orthopaedic examination served to recognize disorders that are known to change feet consistency. The identification of congenital problems, particularly involving the feet; postural abnormalities of the spine, pelvis, hips. Knees Achilles Tendon shortening, and restraint to subtalar joint movements are essential for ruling out the possibility of secondary pes planus. (Hernandez et al., 2007). The medial longitudinal arch of the foot is of great importance because it helps protect the foot from injuries (Xiong et al., 2010). An important highly variable structure characteristics of the human foot is its medial and longitudinal arch, which provides necessary shock absorption for the foot during activities. Traditionally, feet are classified as being high, normal or low arched. A high arched foot is supposed to be at increased risk of injuries to the bony structures on the lateral aspect of the foot(oversupinated), where as a low arched foot can be at greater risk for soft tissue damage on the medial part of the foot(over pronated) (Xiong et al., 2010).


    Having lived in Ovia NorthEast L.G.A. the researcher have observed some unhealthy attitudes and suffering of indigenes of the community; such as having pins, nails or bottle fragments stuck in their foot which leads to infection in the blood. While others carry open injuries in the aches of their foot, exposing the injuries to dirt, infections and causing social embarrassment to the patient or guardian.

    The foot should be covered and well protected, because it reduces it’s chances of being prone to injuries and infections.

Hence, the researcher wants to determine the different types of foot arches, age variance of people and also to learn the prevention of the problems associated with the arches of the foot.


1 To find out what people know about the arches of the foot.

2 To determine the prevalence of pes planus among residents in Ovia North East.

3 To determine the prevalence of pes cavus among residents in Ovia North East.

4 To know the lower limb disorders that affect pes planus.


This research work if communicated and published will help

⦁ Parents, guardians and teachers learn more about the arches of the foot and enforce it among their children.

⦁ It will serve as bases for further learning and research.

⦁ Minimize the incidence of foot injuries due to utilization of appropriate techniques on the preventive measures of the foot.

This study for the very first time will report plantar arch index and prevalence of pes planus among residents in Ovia NorthEast L.G.A, Okada.

The zeal behind this work was to thoroughly investigate plantar arch index among residents in Ovia NorthEast L.G.A. physical therapists need to understand the applied anatomy of the arch of the foot as it relates to the disorders of the lower limb. Muscular imbalances, compensatory pronation of the foot, are sometimes caused by pes planus or pes cavus. If a standardized research work can be made available with equipment’s for physical therapists, the knowledge gotten will help them balance the foot and restore normal function of the lower limb.


1 What do people know about the arches of the foot?

2   To find out if the residents have disorder of the lower limb.


The study is delimited to the residents of Ovia NorthEast L.G.A. This study is carried out in a bid to use the plantar arch index in studying the prevalence of pes planus among residents in Ovia NorthEast L.G.A. The spatial scope is Okada in Edo State.

The subjects  of this study are the male and female residents of ages 16 to 35years of Okada. The residents comprise of all ethnicity, class, tribes and race none would be left out.


The objective of this research wouldn’t be smoothly or accurately realized because of some hindrances, some of the limitations include ;

⦁ The difficulty in moving instruments of research from one point to another.

⦁ People refusing to footprint materials because of ink stain on their foot.

⦁ People being scared of filling the questionnaire because they think giving off information might be detrimental.

⦁ Indifference in people’s participation to research work.


OVIA NORTH:   Area of the study

RESIDENTS: In sub-Saharan Africa, the term “Residents” is associated with people of different races that live in a community.

ARCHES OF THE FOOT:   They are formed by tarsals and metatarsal bones, it allows the foot to support the weight of the body in the erect posture with the least weight.



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