ANTHROPOMETRIC COMPARISM OF CEPHALIC INDICES BETWEEN YORUBA AND BENIN ETHNIC GROUPS RESIDING IN OKADA TOWN, EDO STATE.

  ANTHROPOMETRIC COMPARISM OF CEPHALIC INDICES BETWEEN YORUBA AND BENIN ETHNIC GROUPS RESIDING IN OKADA TOWN, EDO STATE.

Anthropometry deals with the measurement of physical sizes and shapes of human body (D. Poswillo, 1963). In differentiating people of different ethnic backgrounds, nutritional status, and gender, according to G. V. Shah and H. R. Jahhav, 2004, anthropometric data seems to be useful. Several measurable anthropometric parameters or variables have been developed over the years for establishing possible differences amongst different groups (G. V. Shah and H. R. Jahhav., 2004).

According to G. V. Shah and H. R. Jahhav (2004), S. W. Lobo, T. S. Chandrashekhar, and S. Kumar (2005), M.J.Golalipour (2006), Cephalic index is one of such very useful measurable anthropometric variables used in physical anthropology to determine geographical gender, age, and racial and ethnic variations. They proved that comparison of changes in cephalic index between parents, offspring, and siblings gives clues to genetic transmission of inherited characters or traits which play a role in forensic science. Argyropoulos and Sassouni(1989) showed that morphological features of different races and ethnic groups are not randomly distributed but appear in geographic clusters. Arguably, Cephalometry continues to be the most versatile technique in the investigation of the craniofacial skeleton because of its validity and practicality (G. T. McIntyre and P. A. Mossey, 2003). Cephalometry is associated with the morphological study of all the structures present in the human head. Cephalometry is the scientific measurement of the dimensions of the head usually through the use of standardized lateral skull radiographs (I. EI-Feghi et al, 2004). Based on the above factors, anthropometric studies are conducted on the age, sex, and social or ethnic groups in certain geographical zones (G. V. Shah and H. R. Jahhav, [2004], P. Williams et al, [2003], M.J.Golalipour et al, [2003], M.J.Golalipour et al, [2005], B. C. Didia and D. V. Dapper, [2005], S. H. Garba, [2008], H. B. Fawehinmi and A. M. Eroje, [2009], O. Joy et al, [2009], G. S. Oladipo et al, [2009], G. S. Oladipo et al, [2013]). Several studies have been conducted on the age,sex,and racial or ethnic groups in different geographical zones (O. Joy et al, [2009], G. S. Oladipo et al, [2009], G. S. Oladipo et al, [2013], I. P. Singh and N. K. Bharin, [1968], E. A. Osunwoke et al, [2012]).These authors have sited various categories of cranium on the basis of head length, breadth, and index and described seven groups of crania. R. F. Okupe et al. (1984), in a comparative study of bi parietal diameter (BPD) fetuses of some of the Nigerian ethnic groups and Caucasians, showed statistically significant differences until near term when the Nigerian fetuses showed consistently longer BPD. Cussenot et al. (1990) reported that skeletal measurements were made as the basis of foetal anthropometry and age determination. In a related study, cephalic index varied with advancing gestational age with the highest and lowest being 81.5 and 78.0 at weeks 14 and 28, respectively (D. L. Gray, 1989).

Several studies have been carried out to classify head shapes based on cephalic index into four internationally acceptable categories that include dolicocephalic (<74.9), mesocephalic (75–79.9), brachycephalic (80.0–84.9), and hyperbrachycephalic (85.0–89.9) (P. Williams et al, [2003], M. Del Sol, [2005]). A study has shown that the people of Gurung community of Nepal of India are brachycephalic with cephalic index of 80.42 (G. V. Shah and H. R. Jahhav 2004). Bhils and Barelas are mesocephalic (76.98 & 79.80) (I. Bhargava and G. A. Kher, [1960], I. Bhargava and G. A. Kher[1961]). The Iranian people are predominantly brachycephalic and hyper brachycephalic (M.J.Golalipour, 2006). Besides being a predictor of fetal death, early trans-vaginal measurement of cephalic index had been used for the determination of Down syndrome foetuses (P. Rosati and L. Guariglia 1999). The first classification based on cranial morphology is attributed to the professor of anatomy Anders Retzius (1840).

Project Topics   Project Topics and Materials   

.

Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.