EVALUATION OF CHEESE QUALITY USING GRADED LEVELS OF DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS AS MILK COAGULANT
Cheese was prepared in a small scale at the Department of Agricultural technology Laboratory Kwara State polytechnic Ilorin, Kwara State and analysis of some parameter was carried out on evaluation of cheese quality using graded levels of different plant extracts as coagulant such as C.procera, C.papaya and lime fruit juice. The Parameters analyzed for were, Weight of the cheese, Colour of the cheese, pH of the whey, Time of coagulation, Texture of the cheese Taste of the cheese and Palatability of the cheese.
At the end of the experiment, it was concluded that lime fruit juice can best be use as coagulant in the production of cheese. The use of lime as milk coagulant gives the best cheese out of the three coagulants used. Although other two coagulants did almost equally well.
The word cheese is derived from Latin word Cascus from which the modern word casein is also derived. Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk based food products.
Cheese is produced in wide ranging flavours, texture and forms (Fankhause, 2007).
Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goat or sheep. It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein. Typically the milk is acidified and addition of the enzyme (rennet) or using lemon juice or vinegar causes coagulation.
The solid are separated and pressed into final form (Fankhauser, 2007).
Hundred of types of cheese are produced, their styles, textures and flavour depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal diet) whether they have been pasteurized, the butter fat content, the bacteria and molds the processing and aging.
Herbs, spices or wood smoke may be use as flavouring agent. The yellow to red colour of many cheeses, such as red Leicester, is formed from adding ammalto (U.S Code of Federal regulation, 2006).
Cheese is value for its portability, long life and high content of fat, protein, calcium and phosphorus, cheese is more compact and has a long shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep may depend on the typed of cheese (History of cheese accessed 2007/06/10).
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CHEESE
The need for milk as a source of food has been felt ever since man became aware of the necessary nutrient in the milk. In the primitive ages, the proposed date for the origin of cheese making range from around 8000BCE (when sheep was first domesticated) to around 3000BCE. The first cheese may have been made by people in the Middle East or by nomadic Turkish tribe in Central Asia. Since animal skin and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provide storage vessels for a range of food stuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach of animal.
The cheese making may have begun independently of this by the pressing and salting of curdled milk to prevent it. (History of cheese accessed, 2007).
From the notable observation that the effect of making milk in an animal stomach gave more solid and better – textured curds may have led to the deliberate addition of rennet (Jenny, 1967).
In some years ago it was discovered that milk is often standardized before cheese making, to optimize the protein to fat ration to make a good quality cheese with a high yield. Such new scientific advancement are pasteurized/ heat treat milk, inoculate with starter and non starter Bacteria and Ripen. (www,TraditionalFrenchfood,com/history of cheese.html ).
1.2 AIM OF THE PROJECT
The aim of this project is to know how to prepare cheese from milk and the main ingredient that can enhance the quality of the cheese production. This would enable the producer to know the necessary and the best coagulant used and the best method(s) use in the preparation.
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMEDATION
When a person is intending to become a cheese maker he must locate his site near a diary region or Fulani settlement so as to benefit from having fresher milk, lower priced-milk and lower shipping cost.
Also, one proposing to establish a cheese industry must have a clear idea as to the quality of the product that would be coming out of the industry.
There must be some quality characterize that one must be looking for such as harder varieties, rubbery in texture, high flavouring taste and high palatability which all depend on the experience and quality of the cheese maker.
When product that posses these characteristic have been obtained they are subjected to selling at an open market, when market is favourable to earn a return for the producer.
In this experiment the best coagulant in term of fast coagulation, whitish in colour, smooth in texture and sweet in taste is the cheese made from lime fruit juice.
Therefore “Lime” in recommended in this experiment as a good source of milk coagulant in cheese production, the use of “Lime” in cheese production has no adverse effect on growth performance of human..