DEVELOPMENT, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SINGLE WHEEL DRIVEN BOOM SPRAYER


DEVELOPMENT, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SINGLE WHEEL DRIVEN BOOM SPRAYER

ABSTRACT

The single wheel driven boom sprayer was developed, fabricated and evaluated for its performance at the department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental engineering workshop, Kwara state polytechnic, Ilorin. The spraying performance was carried out at spraying height of 0.5m, 0.6m and 0.7m respectively. The theoretical  field capacity CT, the effective field capacity CE and  Field efficiency (ŋ) at spraying height of 0.5m  are 0.285ha/hr , 0.165ha/hr and 58%, while at spraying height  0.6m, are 0.273ha/hr, 0.158ha/hr and 57.81% and  at spraying height 0.7m are 0.269ha/hr, 0.155ha/hr and  58.055%  respectively.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page      i

Certification                                      ii

Dedication      iii

Acknowledgements      iv            Abstract      v

Table of content                  vi-viii

 List of Tables           ix

List of Plates                                   x

CHAPTER ONE

1 Introduction       1

1.2Statement of the problem             2

1.3Objective of the project      2  

1.4Justification of the project             3

CHAPTER TWO

2Literature review       4

2.1 Spraying operation       4

2.1.1Spray materials       5

2.1.2Classification of sprayers       6

2.2Types of sprayer       9

2.3Sprayer differences       10

2.3.1Types of hydraulic sprayers             10

2.3.2Types of low volume sprayers      12

2.4Calibration and operation      13

2.5Spraying technique      14

2.6 Factors affecting spraying      15

2.7Spraying machinery      16

2.8 Types of pumps for spraying                   20

CHAPTER THREE

3.0Materials and methods      24

3.1Factors to be considered in the selection      24

of materials

3.2Design Considerations      24

3.3 Design and development of various                         26

Components

3.3.1Knapsack sprayer      26

3.3.2The frame      26

3.3.3Driving wheel      27

3.3.4Crank mechanism      28

3.3.5 The boom       29

3.4Specification of the single wheel driven boom sprayer      30

3.5Description of the single wheel driven boom sprayer      31

CHAPTER FOUR 

4.0Performance Evaluation      32

4.1Experimental procedure      32

4.2Results                  32             

4.2       Results and Discussions       37

CHAPTER FIVE 

5.0Conclusion and recommendation       385.1Conclusion       385.2Recommendation       38

References       39

LIST OF TABLES

 TABLE       TITLE PAGE

  4.2.1 Spraying parameters at spraying height 0.5m 32

  4.2.2Spraying parameters at spraying height 0.6m33

  4.2.3 Spraying parameters at spraying height 0.7m             34

  4.2.4Average spraying data at spray height 0.5,0.6 35

and 0.7           

LIST OF PLATES

    PLATES TITLE         PAGE

     2.1 Hydraulic energy sprayers 6

     2.2Gasoline energy sprayers7

     2.3 Centrifugal energy sprayers 7

     2.4 Roller pump 20

     2.5Diaphragm pump21

     2.6Piston pump22

     2.7 Turbine pump 23

     3.1 Knapsack sprayer 26

     3.2 The Frame 27

     3.3          The wheel   27 

     3.4Maximum and minimum displacement of piston pump29

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

Crop yield is reduced by mainly due to attack of pest, diseases and weeds. Chemical control is the popular method adopted for controlling most insects, weed and diseases.  The chemical are applied either by spraying or dusting.  Spraying is one of the most effective and efficient techniques for applying small volume of spray liquid to protect crops.  In conventional methods, manually operated low and high volume hydraulic sprayer and power operated hydraulic sprayer with long boom, long lances or spray gun are used to carry fluid at different targets.  In this method, the time and labor required is more. It is difficult to spray the pesticide uniformly and effectively throughout the crop by conventional method of spraying.  Though this method gives good pest control, it consumes large volume of liquid per plant, great amount of labour and time are required.  Also drip losses are more owing to concern towards protecting environment from pollution by excessive use of pesticide and to economies the spraying method, suitable alternative should be identified.

In Nigeria, diverse farm mechanization scenario as in country due to varied size of the farm holdings and socio economic disparities.  Most farmers in Nigeria are small and marginal land holder.  The spraying operation is done by knapsack sprayer which consumes more time and energy.

Tractor operated sprayers are difficult for adaptation by the farmer due to existing cropping patterns available for field size, field condition during the rainy season.  To overcome these problem requirements for better adapting in the view of a single wheel driven boom sprayer is a better option due to its medium cost and small size implying maneuverability in the small land holding. 

Single wheel driven boom sprayers can fulfill the mechanization gap to do spraying operation at the faster rate.  This shows there is an urgent need to introduce mechanical sprayer in Nigeria farm.  The single wheel driven boom sprayer should be small for easy maneuverability and less expensive for farmers as best source of spraying operation.

1.1      Statement of the problemsThe back mounted knapsack sprayer is associated with the following problemsi.      It consumes more time and labor during spraying operationii.     The output is lowiii.    The uniformity and efficiency is inadequate

1.2 Objectives of the Project

The main objective of the research is to design, develop and evaluate a boom for a Knapsack sprayer.  The specific objectives for the research are:

I. To design and fabricate a single wheel driven boom sprayer.

II. To evaluate the performance of a single wheel driven boom sprayer.

1.3 Justifications of the Project

The justications of the project are basically:

I. To control the growth of weeds not comporting with crop planted

II. To reduce human labor for controlling weed  in the field

III. To improve the quality and quantity of the crop planted

To increase the income of the farmers.

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DEVELOPMENT, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SINGLE WHEEL DRIVEN BOOM SPRAYER



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