Title Page………………..i




Table of content……...…v



1.     Person square method:

2.     Simultaneous equation method:

3.     Trial and error method:

4.     Two-by-two matrix method:

5.     Linear programming method:

6.     Stochastic method:

1.2     Justification

1.3     Aim

 1.4    Objectives



2.1       Sources of Protein for Poultry

2.2       Importance of Edible Insects in Nutrition and Economy

2.2.1    Nutritional Value of Insects

2.2.2    Chemical Composition of Insects in Dry Matter (DM)%

2.3       Insect Meals as a Substitute for Fish Meal in Poultry

2.4       Nutritive Diet Required by Broilers

2.5       Common Insects in Poultry Diet

2.5.1    The Role of Insects in Broiler Report Authors  



3.1       Collection of Raw Materials for the Feed

3.2       Modified Feed Formulae

3.3       Experimental Birds

3.4       Experimental Sites

3.5       Feed Compounding

3.6       Feed Analysis


4.0       RESULTS



5.1       Discussion

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendations




Feed formulation is an applied field of nutrition where nutritionists apply their knowledge to produce balanced diets in which many pieces of information are incorporated to maximize the efficiency of the formulation process (Rasheed, 2016).

 Ration can be defined as the total amount of feed given to the animals on daily basis while ration formulation is the process by which different feed ingredients are combined in a proportion necessary to provide the animal with proper amount of nutrients needed at a particular stage of production (Afolayan, 2008).

Ration formulation help to enhance adaptation of local feed stuff in compounding rations, thus, two basic concepts are put into consideration when formulating feed, the specific nutrient requirement of different animals and ingredients and cost of the feed itself. Nutrients are chemical substances found in food materials (feeds) which are required for the growth, maintenance, production and health of animals. Some specific requirements depend on the types of animals in question, whether it is a monogastric or ruminant, a ruminant animals is one that regurgitates food from its stomach and chews it again, ruminant are capable of digesting complex carbohydrate or cellulose.  Examples of ruminants include cow and sheep while monogastric animal is one that is capable of digesting complex carbohydrate, example of monogastric animal is poultry (Tayo, 2012).

The most important rules of animal production is to provide high quality protein for human consumption, and to achieve this, animals are to be feed with correct proportion of high quality protein in their diets (Araujo, Junqueira, Faria, Andreotti and Araujo, 2004).

Poultry are domesticated birds raised for meat or egg production poultry feeding is a major item of cost in poultry production in Nigeria, feed cost accounts for 70 – 75% of the total cost of producing eggs and broilers. Many commercial farms have collapsed while a good number out of them witness slow growth due to sudden increase in the cost of poultry feeds. In order to maintain a reasonable margin of profit despite the rising cost of raw materials and labour, there must be a design to reduce the cost of production and still maintain high level of performance in the birds, otherwise the prices of poultry product (eggs and meat) will increase significantly.

Furthermore, an ideal ration must contain the required level of nutrient at minimum cost, hence least cost ration formulation techniques have to be employed to obtain diets that meet specific requirements from readily available ingredients at lowest cost. Efficient ration formulation requires proper knowledge of feed stuffs nutrients contained in the feed stuff as well as the type of animal to be fed with such ration to ensure optimal production at a reasonable cost. The ration should be palatable enough to encourage adequate consumption by the animals and effort should be made to ensure that such ration will not cause any serious digestive disturbance or toxic effects on the animal.

Different species strains or classes of animals have different requirements for energy (carbohydrate and fats), proteins, minerals and vitamins in order to maintain its various functions like body maintenance, reproduction of egg, milk and meat production etc.

Feed formulation for poultry is a highly complex exercise it involves selecting a combination of feed ingredients that adequately meet stated nutrients and other requirements of livestock (Afolayan et al., 2008).

Poultry feed formulation was, until recently, based on the concept of crude protein which frequently resulted in diet containing amino acid levels higher than the actual requirements of birds, excess amino acid is poorly used by birds as it must be reduced to nitrogen and then excreted as uric acid. The commercial availability of synthetic amino acids has allowed nutritionist to formulate cheaper feeds that contain adequate level of amino acids, though birds do not have high crude protein requirements, but there should be sufficient protein to provide an adequate nitrogen supply for synthesis of non-essential amino acids (Araujo et al., 2004).

There are several methods in formulating ration (feeds) though all of them have the same objective of providing the required balanced nutrients at the least possible cost, some of these methods are:

1.     Person square method:

Some of the merits of this method of feed formulation include the fact that:

-         It is relatively simple, direct and easy to follow;

-         It is useful in balancing for the protein requirements.

Some of the limitations of Pearson square method are that:

-         It uses only two feed ingredients

-         Less consideration is given to other nutritive requirements, vitamins and minerals.

2.     Simultaneous equation method:

This is an alternative method for the Pearson square method using simple algebraic equation. The advantages of this over the Pearson square method is that:

-         One can balance for both the protein and the energy.

-         It is also useful in considering more than two feed ingredients at once when balancing more complex ration

3.     Trial and error method:

This is the most popular method of formulating rations for poultry.  As the name implies, the formulation is manipulated until the nutrient requirement of the birds is arrived at. Trial and error method can be done manually on paper or with the aid of a computer using programme like spreadsheet, e.g excel, lotus 123 and Quattro pro. This method makes possible the formulation of the ration that meets all the nutrient requirements of the birds.

The limitation of this method is that, it is laborious and takes more time before one will arrive at a fairly satisfactory result.

4.     Two-by-two matrix method:

This method solves two nutrient requirements using two different feed ingredients.

5.     Linear programming method:

This is the common method of least cost food formulation; this method determines the least-cost combination of ingredients using a series of mathematical equation.

6.     Stochastic method:

This is an alternative to Pearson square or simultaneous equation method. This method has been widely recommended for feed formulation.

Broilers are chickens reared for meat; broilers are bred to be very fast growing in order to gain weight quickly. Broilers require energy expressed in mega joules per kilogram (MJ/kg) or kilocalories per kilogram (kcal/kg) for growth of tissue, maintenance and activity. Broiler meals have to contain protein (plant and animal source) which are broken down by digestion into amino acids; these amino acids are absorbed and assembled in body proteins which are used in the construction of body tissue e.g muscles, nerves, skin and feathers. The broilers also needed vitamin and mineral supplement which depends on feed ingredients used, feed manufacturing practices and local circumstances (Dejong, Butterworth, Berg and Esteve, 2012).

Starter/brooding period (0 – 10  days of age) is to establish good appetite and maximum early growth in order to meet the seven-days body weight, the starter represents a small proportion of the total feed cost and decisions on starter formulation is based primarily on performance and profitability rather than purely on diet cost. For feeding broilers the recommended nutrient density will ensure optimal growth established during this critical period of the bird’s life. Broiler starter needs energy level of 3000 kcal ME/kg and crude protein of 22.5 – 23%. The feeds are usually in form of crumbs/mash or pellets of 1.8 – 2mm in size (Wiseman, 1994).

Fish meal and soya meal are still quite commonly used in poultry diets. One potential solution is the use of insects primarily as an alternative to fish meal and soy meal. Most edible insects are cheap, easily available and can provide a good source of protein and minerals needed to complement cereal-based foods consumed in the developing countries (Makkar, 2014).

Insect proteins are more valuable protein source for monogastric animals. Insect meal compared to fish meal contain a lower amount of methionine and calcium which has to be considered when formulating diets based on insect proteins (Jayaprakash, Sathiyabarathi and Robeth, 2016).

The most promising insects used in animal feeds are the larvae of the black soldier fly, maggot and pupae of common house fly, yellow meal worm, larvae of beetle, termites, flies and insect families belonging to the order Orthoptera which include locust (Grasshoppers) crickets and katydids. Hence this study will undergo the production of locust feed meal for broiler chicks.

1.2     Justification

The significance of this study is to formulate feed meal where by locust meal is used as a substitute for fish meal which can be an alternative animal protein source for broiler chicks, the effect of the meal on growth performance of the bird and which can serve as a point of reference for both poultry breeders and students.

1.3     Aim

To formulate starter feed meal for broiler Chicks using locust (Orthoptera acrididae) meal.

 1.4    Objectives

1.       To determine the feed in-take efficiency of Chicks.

2.       To determine the effect of the formulated meal on the Chicks.

3.       To compare the efficacy of the formulated feed with that of the commercial feed



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