ECONOMICS OF OIL PALM SEEDLING PRODUCTION

 ECONOMICS OF OIL PALM SEEDLING PRODUCTION 

The African Oil Palm, Elaeis guineensi jacq (Jacquin, 1963), is placed in the Arecaceae family which contains about 225 genera with over 2600 species along with coconut and date palms cultivars.  There are 3 naturally occurring forms of the oil palm fruit, termed dura, tenera and pisifera.  The selection of dura female and pisifera male parents is carried out to obtain tenera offspring that produce large oil yield (Breure et al, 1986, Breure, 2003). The African oil palm is native to tropical Africa, from Sierra Leone in the West through the Democratic Republic of Congo in the East, it was domesticated in its native range, probably in Nigeria, and moved throughout tropical Africa by humans who practiced shifting agriculture at least 5,000 years ago (Hartley, 1988).  European explorers discovered the palm in the late 1400’s, and distributed it throughout the world during the slave trade period (Corner, 1966).  In the early 1800’s, the slave trade ended but British began trading with West Africans in Ivory, lumber and palm oil. The oil palm was introduced to the Americans hundred years ago, where it became naturalized and associated with slave plantations, but did not become an industry of its own until the 1960s (Lereka, 1998).  The first plantations were established on Sumatra in 1911, and in 1917 in Malaysia (Raymond, 1961).  Oil plantations were established in tropical America and West Africa about this time, and in 2003, palm oil production equaled that of soybean, which had been the number one oil crop for many years.Elaeis guineeasis is characterized by its vertical trunk and feathery nature of its leaves every year 20 – 25 new leaves called “frond” develop in continuous whorle at the apex of the trunk (Devendra, 1984).  The fruit bunches develop between the trunk and the base on the new fronds and the plant can reach 60 – 80ft in height in nature, but is rarely more than 20 or 30ft in cultivation.  Although new plantation starts to bear fruit at 3 years, generally, the first commercial crop require between five and six years and continuous to produce for 25 – 30 years, or until the palm grow too high to be harvested.  Once a plantation reaches full production, a new inflorescence is produced every 15 days.  It weights between 15 and 20kg and can conking up to 1500 individual palm fruit of between 8 and 10 grams each (Chavaliar, 1937).  The individual fruits consist of the following four parts, a pericarp, a thin outer skin which upon ripening changes from brown to red or orange, a mesocarp, a large of fibrous material which surrounds the nut, an endocarp or hard inner shell (nut) to protect the seed or kernel and the seed (kernel) (Aighologa, 1995).  The female inflorescence contains 200 – 300 fruits, and fruit set is 50 – 70% fruit riped about 5 – 6 months after pollination (Ergo, 1977). Vegetable and edible oil producer of Nigeria (VEOPAN) claims that, it provided job opportunities for not less than 1.8 million farmer family involved in this production of oil seeds and related crops.  Nigeria with a National 1.3 million tones of palm oil and a population.  Of over 140 million that means each family produces less than 700kg per year, i.e. an average of less than 2kg/day (Eshalomi, 2008). Last year, the vegetable oil sub-sector of Manufacturers Association of Nigeria reported that the market has been very unstable because of high cost of input, excessive smuggling of vegetable oil and faking.  Recently, the group lamented the shortage of palm oil plantation production which is the major raw material for vegetable oil production because it condemned the Federal Government of Nigeria for signing a contract to supply palm oil to Ghana, whose local demand has not been met (Eshlomi, 2008). In Edo State, effort has been made to encourage the establishment of oil palm plantation.  These has yielded some positive result such as establishment of multinational oil palm plantation companies, whose production has follow Presco Industry Limited 22,000 tonnes/year and an indigenous oil palm farm Nosakeri Farm (Vanguard, 2007).

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The production of oil palm seedling is currently the only source of planting materials for oil palm production in Edo State senatorial district.  The entire seedling produced in the world is of the tenera type obtained from fertilizing dura tree with pollen form pisifera tree (Griseb, 2007). The oil palm seedling production is handled directly by organizations such as the Ministry of Agriculture and NIFOR (Wikipedia, 2008). However, it is observe that a number of business oriented persons are not investing in oil palm seedlings production.  What would be responsible for this? The equation therefore is whether investment in oil palm seedling production is not profitable or there are some other problems that are preventing investment in oil palm seedling production. It is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the profitability and viability of oil palm seedling production in Edo South Senatorial district.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The broad objective of the study is the economic analysis of oil palm seedlings production in Edo South senatorial district. The specific objectives are:

To examine the soicio-economic characteristics of the producers of oil palm seedlings in the study area. To identify the methods adopted in raising the oil palm seedlings in the study area. To estimate the cost and returns in oil palm seedlings production and access its profitability and viability. To identify the factors affecting the level of income generated in the production of oil palm seedlings in the study area. To identify constraints militating/facing against oil palm seedlings production. 

Project Topics   Project Topics and Materials   

.

Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.