This research report was carried out to ascertain whether traditional costing techniques (standard, marginal and absorption costing) are still relevant for today’s demand and greater cost accuracy. Managers and Accounting are confused about which of these techniques will enhance effective cost control and effective management decision. Several literatures were reviewed and the problems were investigated through the use of quantitative research design where questionnaires were distributed to the production department of Coca-Cola Nigeria PLC which is the case study. The questionnaire was analyzed using the ordinary least square regression method and correlation co-efficient from which the hypothesis were tested and conclusions reached. The analysis reveals that traditional costing techniques are still relevant for today’s demand and greater cost accuracy and that Marginal costing is the most effective for cost control and effective management decision. In conclusion, the result is useful because Academic and Practitioner can reach a consensus that these costing techniques are not outdated but very relevant and Managers can explore a greater use of Marginal Costing as the most effective tool for cost control effective management decision.



Title                                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                               ii

Dedication                                                                                                 iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                     iv

Abstract                                                                                                     v

Table of Contents                                                                                 vi– viii

Chapter one

1.0   Background of the Study                                                  15

1.1   Statement of the Problem                                                 21

1.2   Research Objectives                                                         22

1.3   Research Questions                                                         23

1.4   Research Hypothesis                                                        23

1.5   Scope and Limitations of the Study                                  24

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                  24

1.7       Historical  background of case study                                24

1.8       Definition of terms


Chapter two Literature Review

2.0. Definition of important concepts                                      31

2.1   cost concept and classification                                         35

2.2   cost classification according to                                         47

Their behavior

2.3   standard costing                                                              51

2.4   establishing standard costing system                               56   

2.5   variance analysis as a tool for cost control        58

2.6   Marginal Costing                                                              63

2.7   The theory of marginal costing                                         65    

2.8   The principles of marginal Costing                                   66

2.9   Profit Planning under Marginal Costing                            67

2.10 Break-even analysis                                                         68

2.11 Advantages of Marginal Costing                                        69

2.12 The Main Disadvantages of Marginal                                71

Costing are as follows

2.13 Absorption costing                                                           72

2.14 Features of Absorption Costing                                        73

2.15 Advantages of Absorption Costing                                    73

2.16 Limitations of Absorption Costing                                     74

2.17 Overhead; Classification, Allocation

        and absorption                                                                78

2.18 Classifications of overhead costs                                       79                        

Chapter Three

3.0   Research Methodology                                                     85

3.1   Re-Statement of Research Problems                                 85

3.2   Re-Statement of Research Objectives                                        85

3.3   Re-Statement of Research Hypothesis                              86

3.4   Research Design                                                              86

3.5   Population                                                                       87

3.6   Data Sampling and Sampling Techniques                         87

3.7   Method of Data Collection                                                88

3.8   Method of data analysis                                                   88

Chapter Four Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation 4.0   Introduction                                                                     89

4.1.  Presentation of results                                                      90

Chapter five

Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.0   introduction                                                                     107

5.1   summary                                                                         107

5.2   recommendation                                                              109

5.3   Conclusion                                                                      110





Costing techniques is the process of ascertaining cost. These techniques consist of principles and rules which govern the procedure of ascertaining cost of products or services. The techniques to be followed for analysis of expenses and the processes of different products vary from industry to industry. The main object of costing is the analysis of financial records so as to subdivide expenditure and to allocate it carefully to selected cost centers and hence build up a total cost for the products. (The Institute of Company Secretaries of India, (2013). In the ancient days, the information required by those who were interested in a business organization was met by practicing a system of accounting known as financial accounting system. Financial accounting is mainly concerned with preparation of two important statements, viz., income statement (or profit & loss account) and positional statement (or Balance Sheet). This information served the needs of all those who are not directly associated with management of business. Thus financial accounts are concerned with external reporting as it provides information to external authorities. But the management of every business organization is interested to know much more than the usual information supplied to outsiders. In order to carry out its functions of planning, decision-making and control, it requires additional cost data. The financial accounts to some extent fail to provide required cost data to management and hence a new system of accounting which could provide internal report to management was conceived of and this is the genesis of Cost Accounting and its techniques such as Marginal costing, Standard costing, Absorption costing e.t.c. The history of cost accounting techniques can be traced back to the fourteenth century. In the course of its evolution, it passed through following stages.

(1)    In the first stage of its development, cost accounting was concerned only with the three prime cost elements, viz., direct material cost, direct labor cost and direct expenses. For recording the transactions relating to materials the important documents used were (a) stores ledger, (b) a material requisition note, and (c) materials received note. To account for labor cost, employee time card and labor cost card were devised by Mr. Metcalfe. Later on a distinction between manufacturing and non-manufacturing cost was made by Mr. Norton. Thus material cost, labor cost and manufacturing cost constituted prime cost. (2) Secondly, around the turn of the nineteenth century, the importance of nonmanufacturing cost (overheads) was recognized as one of the distinct element of cost. The method of charging non-manufacturing cost to the production cost was devised under this stage.

(3)    Thirdly, the techniques of estimation and standards are devised. Instead of using actual cost, standard costs are used and by comparing with the actual cost the differences are noted, analyzed and disposed off accordingly. This helps in knowing the efficiency of the business undertaking.

(4)    Fourthly, cost accounting techniques were applied to all types of business undertakings. The costing principles and techniques were also extended to important functions of a business.

(5)    In modem times the development of electronic data processing has occupied significant stage in the growth of cost accounting system. Having ascertained ‘cost’ and ‘profit’, cost accountancy is concerned with presentation of information to management to enable management to carry out its functions, reports must be promptly made available at the right time.   

(Sangladji , 2008). From the mid 1980s, the start of new movements in the field of managerial/cost accounting, a gap has emerged between the opinions of academia and practitioners regarding the degree of usefulness of managerial/cost accounting techniques. It is believed that practitioners generally prefer managerial/cost accounting techniques which are simple, practical and economically applicable. On the other hand, many authors and academia believe that the traditional managerial/cost accounting techniques are obsolete and not effective for managerial decision-making purposes and cost control. As stated by one author, most of the traditional management/cost accounting information are usually too late, too aggregated, and too distorted to be relevant for decision-making purposes. Despite the considerable criticisms to the traditional costing techniques and increasing interest in developing new managerial/cost accounting models in recent years, the traditional cost accounting techniques are still widely used by many organization (Sangladji,2008). project topics   final year project topics and research materials 

According to previous researchers, as stated by Nguyen (2011), different costing techniques have different core competitive advantages to organizations. From the oldest to newest method, decision of managers is still affected, As a result, finding the best method to reduce the failure rates and increase the effectiveness of cost allocation and control is a hard question for both managers and accountants. Based on the accounting history, there are many types of costing method such as: traditional or absorption costing method, variable costing method, standard  costing, throughput costing method, and ABC costing method. Changes in business environment requires a better method which can help managers control their performance. For many researchers, cost accounting techniques are still a major concern for them.  Different techniques lead to different decisions of the managers therefore profits to the organizations can not be the same. A dynamic business environment lead to the need for new costing methods for new cost objects. Marginal costing was born as a result of the demand for this. According to this method, only costs which are adjusted to the production process should he concerned by managers. However, in the long run, some fixed costs still need to change. As a must a new cost accounting method is invented.  Instead at sharing equally among various departments and maintaining the fixed costs in the long run, expenses arc divided differently based on some factors such as labor hours, direct materials and the fixed cost can be changed based  on the need of the production process. None of the products need the same quantity of direct material as well as the direct labor hours. So managers should know how to use and allocate costs more efficiently. However, for the purpose of this research, the costing techniques the researcher shall be examining will be limited to Marginal costing, Absorption costing and Standard Costing being the commonest traditional costing techniques as time and space will not allow him examine other costing techniques such as historical costing and uniform costing e.t.c. The institute of Cost and Management Accountant defines Standard Costing as a “predetermined cost which is calculated from management standard of efficient operations and relevant necessary expenditure”. The usefulness of information provided from the analysis of variance related to standard costing has been challenged. Attention to quality some critics say is inadequate. Others have proposed that quality considerations can be incorporated into standard costing (See Cheatham and Cheatham, 1996).

On the other hand, Absorption costing is a method for appraising or valuing a firm’s total cost including all manufacturing costs as product costs, regardless of whether they are variable or fixed and therefore it is frequently referred to as the full cost method. (Seiler, 1959; Chandra and Paperman, 1976; Lal and Srivastava, 2008) though confronted with the problem of arbitrary apportionment of fixed cost. While under variable costing, only those manufacturing costs that vary with output are treated as product costs. This would usually include direct material, direct labor, and the variable portion of manufacturing overhead. Variable costing is sometimes referred to as direct costing or marginal costing. Fixed manufacturing overhead is treated as period cost just as selling and administrative expenses. Thus in inventory valuation or in cost of goods sold fixed manufacturing overhead is not treated as product cost in marginal costing technique. (Seiler, 1959; Chandra and Paperman, 1976; Lal and Srivastava, 2008; Swamidas, 2000)


From the background of our study above and brief review of relevant literature the following problems were identified:

There is widespread complain that traditional cost accounting techniques     such as standard costing ,marginal costing and absorption costing have been     found obsolete and deficient for today demand and greater cost accuracy Managers and Accountants are confused about which of the costing     techniques to use which will ensure effective cost control and will enhance       effective management decision Inadequate knowledge as to whether or not quality considerations can be     incorporated into each of those costing techniques The assignment of indirect costs to products, departments, and other cost      object has been a long standing problem in cost accounting


The main objectives of this research is to determine the following

The degree of usefulness of different managerial/cost accounting techniques (marginal costing, standard costing and absorption costing). To find a long lasting solution to the problem of apportionment of indirect     cost To carry out an empirical study to ascertain whether our traditional costing     techniques are still relevant for today’s demand and greater cost accuracy. To know if quality consideration can be incorporated into each of the costing     techniques. To know which of the costing technique is most effective for cost control     and will enhance management decision.


Some burning issues on the researchers mind will be looked at critically with the hope of proffering solutions to them and are as follows:

What is the most appropriate basis for the apportionment of fixed cost Are traditional costing techniques still relevant for today’s demand and greater cost accuracy. Which of the costing techniques is most effective for cost control and will enhance management decision. Can quality consideration be incorporated into each of the costing techniques.


 In other for our study to be properly guided, the following null (Ho) and alternative hypothesis (Hi) have been formulated:


Ho:   Traditional costing techniques are not relevant for today’s demand and         greater cost accuracy.

Hi:    Traditional costing techniques are relevant for today’s demand and greater     cost accuracy.


Ho:   Quality consideration cannot be incorporated into traditional costing         techniques

Hi:    Quality consideration can he incorporated into traditional costing techniques.


This section explores the confines within which our research will be carried out and the circumstances beyond the researcher’s circumstances which might affect our study. This research will explore our traditional costing techniques such as standard costing marginal costing and absorption costing to the fullest while the researcher will use Coca-Cola Bottling company as the case study from which the population for our research will be examined.

In addition, constraint such as limited lime, inadequate finance and inability to recover all questionnaires used in gathering data might he encountered and this might have a negative impact on our study. However the researcher will put in his best in ensuring a worth while research is conducted.


The major objective of management in any organization is to minimize cost and maximize profit by avoiding wastage of resources. This research will however be of interest to Nigeria’s manufacturing industry as it will:

Enlighten on  how best to minimize  the cost of  production through  effective  cost control while maintain the quality of her output Show us how to judiciously utilize our scarce resources in other to avoid wastage It will help the sector to be quality driven  which will increase customers  patronage Enhance the productive capacity of the sector so that her contribution to the GDP  ( Gross Domestic Product)  will  be  significant  to accelerate  the pace of economic  growth   and development


The Coca- Cola Bottling Company is an American multinational, retailer and marketer of non alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrup which has its headquarters in Atlanta Georgia. The company is best known for its flagship product Coca-Cola, invented in 1886 by Pharmacist John Smith Pembemton in Columbus Georgia.

The Coca-Cola formula and brand was Bought in 1889 by Asia Candler who incorporated the company in 1882.Beside its namesakes Coco-Cola beverage, Coca-Cola currently offers more than 500 brands in over 200 countries and serves over 1.7billion people each day

Tab was Coca-Colas first attempt to develop diet soft drink using Saccharin as a sugar substitute introduced in 1963l, the product is still sold today, although its sales have swindled since the introduction of Diet Coke. The company also produces a number of other soft drinks. During the 1990s, the company responded to growing consumer’s interest in healthy beverages by introducing several new carbonated beverage brands. These includes: Minute Maid, Juices to go. Powerade Sports beverage flavored tea Nestea (in Joint venture with Nestea) etc.

1.11            DEFINITION OF TERMS

Marginal Costing: The C. I.MA London defines marginal costing as       “a techniques of costing which aims at ascertaining marginal costs, determining the effects of changes in costs, volume, and price on the Company’s profitability, stability etc. and furnishing the relevant data to the management for enabling it to take various management decisions by segregating total costs into variable and fixed costs.” Standard Costing: Standard Costing is a technique of cost accounting which     compares the standard cost of each product or service with actual cost to determine the efficiency of the operation, so that any remedial action may be         taken immediately. Absorption Costing: Absorption Costing is also termed as Full Costing (or)     Orthodox Costing.  It is the technique that takes into account charging of all     costs both variable and fixed costs to operation Direct Cost: These are cost that are easily traced to a product or cost unit to a      cost center or some specific activity e.g cost of wood for making furniture. It is also called traceable cost Indirect Cost: These are difficult to trace to a single product. They are     common to sever al products e.g. Salary of a factory manager. It is also     called common cost.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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