THE EFFECT OF INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF LAGOS STATE CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION
1.1 THE EFFECT OF INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF LAGOS STATE: Background of the study
Revenue generation in Nigeria local governments is principally derived from tax. Tax is a compulsory levy imposed by the government on individuals and companies for the various legitimate function of the state (Olaoye, 2008). Tax is a necessary ingredient for civilization. The history of man has shown that man has to pay tax in one form or the other that is either in cash or in kind, initially to his chieftain and later on a form of organized government (Ojo, 2003). No system or rules can be effective whether foreign or nature unless it enjoys some measures of financial independence. Local governments in Nigeria have developed over a number of years. Historically, the development of direct taxation in local government in Nigeria can be traced the British pre-colonial period Under this period, community taxes were levied on communities (Rabiu,2004) recently the revenue that accrues to local government is derived from two broad sources, viz the external sources and the internal source An effective Local Government system rests majorly on the availability of human and material resources which the nation could mobilize and harness for local governments development. In 1976, the Federal Military Government then issued guidelines on local government reforms. The reforms which gave recognition to local governments as the third tier of government whereby government activities at the local level were taken care of. In 1988, another reform of local government was established. This gave a substantial and unprecedented reform of autonomy to the local governments in the country. With this autonomy, greater responsibilities devolved on the local government therefore, it became common knowledge that most of the local government is finding it difficult to cope with the present level of responsibilities.
Most state governments in Nigeria do no longer perform their responsibilities simply because poor finances arise from internally generated revenue. The bad financial situation is further aggravated by the prevailing inflationary situation in this country which erodes the value of funds available to render essential social services to the people. Economic growthResearchWap
1.2 THE EFFECT OF INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF LAGOS STATE: Statement of the problem
The state government is faced with myriads of problems ranging from corruption and embezzlement, poor financing, mismanagement of funds to poor leadership. This has deterred the development of state governments in Nigeria. The major issues are; what has contributed to the non-performance; is it because of total dependence on federal statutory allocation? Is it as a result of poor internally generated revenue drive? Is it because of the ineffective utilization of available scarce resources or mismanagement by public office holders? Among others, the state government has always been over-dependent on the statutory allocation thereby causing the state government to underperform which includes;
Dilapidated infrastructural facilities Unavailability of social services to the rural populace. Underdevelopment of local communities.
Based on the above-stated problems, it has become necessary to conduct an analysis of revenue generation in Lagos State.
1.3 THE EFFECT OF INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF LAGOS STATE: Significance of the study
From the outlook, there is a need for the state government to improve its performance. However, the research is significant considering the closeness of state government to the grassroots’ people and the need to utilize substantial revenue for its various sources in addition to federal statutory allocation for developmental purposes. The study will help in identifying some means of generating revenue that have been neglected over the years. It will also be beneficial to the grassroots because improved revenue generation means the improved standard of living in the form of provision of social amenities such as road, hospital, park, drinkable water, rural electrification, etc. The study will be educative as it will be a reference point for researchers.
1.4 THE EFFECT OF INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF LAGOS STATE: Objectives of the study
The broad objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of internally generated revenue on the economic growth of Lagos State.
The specific objectives are;
To examine the relationship between internally generated revenue and economic growth in Lagos State. To ascertain the extent to which Value Added Tax has contributed to government developmental effort. To evaluate the extent to which internally generated revenue has contributed to the economic growth in Lagos State and its various sources.
1.5 THE EFFECT OF INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF LAGOS STATE: Research questions
1. Is there a significant relationship between internally generated revenue and economic growth in Lagos State?
2. Does Allocation from Value Added Tax (VAT) significantly contribute to government developmental effort?
3. Is there a significant relationship between statutory allocation to the state government and economic growth in Lagos State?
1.6 THE EFFECT OF INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF LAGOS STATE: Research hypotheses
A hypothesis is a theoretical conceptualization or an idea or guest regarding how a researcher thinks the result of his study will look. It consists of a set of assumptions accepted previously as a basis of the investigation. It is a proposition that is yet to be tested for its validity. For the purpose of this research study, three null hypotheses were formulated.• H01: There is no significant relationship between internally generated revenue and economic growth in Lagos State.
• H02: Allocation from Value Added Tax (VAT) does not significantly contribute to government developmental effort.
• H03: There is no significant relationship between statutory allocation to the state Government and economic growth in Lagos State.
1.7 THE EFFECT OF INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF LAGOS STATE: Limitations of the study
This study has some limitations most especially in the area of data collection which is to be covered and has a time duration of five years (i.e. 2010–2014). Financial constraints, as well as the time available for the completion of the study, are among other factors that would limit the scope of the study.
1.8 THE EFFECT OF INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF LAGOS STATE: Scope of the study
The study would appraise the revenue generation for a period of five years (1999-2014) in Lagos State. The research is intended to be carried out using secondary data. Secondary data will be obtained from the monthly revenue generation account from the office of the Accountant General of Lagos State.
1.9 THE EFFECT OF INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF LAGOS STATE: Definition of terms
State Government: According to Lawal (2000) State Government as a political subdivision of a nation in the Federal system which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs which includes the power to impose taxes or exact labor for a prescribed purpose.Revenue: Public revenue could be defined as the funds generated by the government to finance its activities. In other words, revenue is the total fund generated by the government (Federal, state, local government/ to meet their expenditure for a fiscal year. This refers also to the grand total of money of income received from the source of which expenses are incurred. Revenue could be internal or external revenue.Generation: This is the process of sourcing revenue for the local government to carry out its aim and objectives.Internally Generated Revenue: Monies collected by a government through the imposition of levies and taxes on facilities, incomes, sale of goods, and services. Growth: An increase in the capacity of an economy to produce goods and services, compared from one period of time to another. Economy: The state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money.
Economic growth: An increase in the number of goods and services produced per head of the population over a period of time.
Expenditure: Public expenditure refers to the expenses which the government incurs for its own maintenance, in the interest of the society and the economy in order to help other countries. Tax: Tax can be defined as a compulsory levy by the government on goods, services, income, and wealth. It provides a definite source of revenue for government expenditure. (Udeh 2008). It is the way by which the government obtains extra money. It spent on the income of individuals and companies. The tax could be a direct or indirect tax. A tax is a payment made by the taxpayers and used by the government for the benefits of all the citizens. Tax Evasion: This means an illegal reduction in one’s tax liabilities, thereby paying less than the appropriate amounts and not paying at all. Tax Avoidance: This is the act of streamlining one’s financial affairs within the law so as to minimize the tax liabilities. Development: According to Ake (2001) Development is thus the process by which people create and recreate themselves and their life circumstances to realize higher levels of civilization in accordance with their own choice and values. It also a type of social change in which new ideas are introduced into a social order to produce higher per-capital income and levels of living through more modern production methods and improved social organization..