Oil exploration in Nigeria could be traced back to 1908 when a German company [Nigerian bitumen the corporation started chilling of cretaceous sands of Niger  Delta. Shell Darchy , the pioneer oil exploration and producing company was incorporated and granted concession  right to prospect for oil in 1936.production and export of crude oil took effect in 1959 at a rate of 5100 barrels per day.

    The success of shell spurred many other multinational oil company to join in the scumble  for Nigeria crude oil. Among these were MOBIL, NIGERIA AGIP OL COMPANY, NIGERIA GULF OIL COMPANY SATRAP [ NOW ELF].others are TEXACO, PAN OCEAN, PHILP OIL ESSO AND ASHLAND.

       Major activities of these oil companies are centered in Delta, Rivers, Cross Rivers, and Imo state.

 These include the offshore and on shore locations. Some of the onshore fields which produce most Nigeria crude oil are located at Bonu, Obigbo north, and east, elenwa ,umuechem, in rivers state, oguta and izombe in Imo state . offshore are located in aqua- Ibom in cross rivers rennington , forcados and escravos in Delta  state.

    The Nigeria economy can largely be described as one with a strong petroleum industry superimposed over an underdeveloped industrial base. Presently Nigeria is growing into a more economic country by depending Marjory on oil revenue. The dominance of oil in the Nigeria economy because a reality after the resumption of oil production at the end of the civil war, [1967-1970] it virtually because predominant after the fuel price increase of 1973 /74. Most recently is the one about to struck the nation now , take from Daily Champion News Paper. Monday march 17, 2003, “fuel price        like :NLC threatens showdown with  FG” was the capital. I wounded were we are leading to, I wounded if the federal government understands that the comfort of new citizen is the price of a government revenue of about 90% of the federal government revenue.

     Fuel scarcity that struck the nation in recent times appears to be continuing without end. Disturbing as the picture might be the situation on the ground shows that a petroleum endowed nation which is one world’s major producers and a member of the organization of petroleum exporting countries [OPEC] with a daily quota of 1.865 million barrels and also one whose four vetira have combined production of 445,000 barrels per day is in the throes of a domestic oil shortage. Petroleum scarcity is usually characterized by the emergency of long queue of vehicle queue for about four days to obtain fuel at exorbitant price. Taking a critical view of this problem one would discover that ‘there is a long list of players from the supply of petroleum product through the refineries to the end users. Some of the participant in this chain of distribution have acquired the role of middlemen adults. Mr Chamberlin  oyibo , the managing director of the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation [NNPC].

      These middlemen operate from a sewing lack of control. The cause of petroleum scarcity could be trace to a complex process where many people and actions contribute, from crude oil through refining to the PPMC [pipeline and product market company ] the tanker drivers and owners. Independent marketers , retailers and consumers all collectively contribute knowingly or unknowingly to petroleum scarcity by their acts of omission or commission.

       This ugly development in which roadside peddlers have abundance of petrol while the filling stations are empty also cries for critical attention


This research work is motivated by an interest in finding a solution to the unending fuel scarcity in our filling stations. This fear of petroleum scarcity  ought not to exist in our oil producing country with massive investment in four petroleum refineries [Wari, Port Harcourt , kaduna , and Elema]. It is puzzling and tragic that the country’s major source of income has become the harbinger of incoherence to the citizens.

However the problem  is to find out the extent to which fuel shortage has affected the entire economy. What are the option left for the government in solving the problems left?. How has it affected the common man in the street.

In view of these complexities government needs to consider with utmost urgency. Other arrangement for managing it’s oil sector efficiency as a catalyst for national development rather than a source for easy money and personal interest. It is quite obvious from what we see day to day about the random rise of fuel price. If I may say the problem is highly affecting the massive in their economic life’s.

The essence of good government is the interest of the masses which fuel scarcity has turned up-side down .


The purpose of this study is to -:

  1. Find the root cause of fuel scarcity
  2. To analysis critically the effect of oil scarcity in our economy.
  3. To offer meaning suggestion as to find a lasting solution.

         The need for this study emanated as a result of a persistent  fuel scarcity in the nation. This work will no doubt cover the smuggling of petroleum products , problems of our four major refineries do not produce up to full capacity. It will indeed look into the major effects on the growth of the economy.

     Finally this work will create the awareness and give insight  of actual picture of fuel scarcity and the associated danger it will create if not checked .


This study will check -:

  1. Effects of fuel scarcity in transportation
  2. Unemployment
  3. Agriculture
  4. Oil revenue

Recently the [NLC] National Labour Congress threatens show down with the federal government over fuel price like, [daily champion march 17] the fuel scarcity has gone a long way affecting every expect of our economy.

Talk about transportation a part of economic sector has increase that many people as usual , some resort to walking to the office which will take a long time and will affect their ability to work. The problem of fuel scarcity  is practical.

Fuel scarcity has as well created unemployment when there is acure , scarcity , must energy source industries would close down , thereby throwing a lot of workers to the unemployment market. This will also affect the road transport workers and their drivers ,which eventually led to serious disorder. Demand for oil is a derived demand. Motor spirit for example is demanded chiefly for the service it renders in the engine. Because of the importance of oil in our economic life. It’s shortage has brought untold hardship and powerful effect on labour force.

An economy in cries of low capacity utilization might lay off workers and in the long run increase unemployment.

Agriculture which is one of the most vital requirement for existence of man was adversely affected by the scarcity of petrol products. Production is not complete until it gets to the final consumer. During the period of scarcity farmer found it hard to covered their farm product to market which resulted to a large loss as most of adequate preservative method and lack of warehouse , this development was not unconnected with the exorbitant cost of transportation which emanated from the scarcity of fuel .

Oil revenue the federal government lost about 150million dollars [about #3.3million] from oil export during the NUPENG/PENGASSON strike in July and August 1994. This show that petroleum scarcity has really done much to our economy. This shortage still happens almost every time there is fuel shortage of strike. It is no gainsaying that oil is the main stay of Nigeria economy  hence an acute shortage is bound to ground the economy. As a result there has been a considerable fall on the accruing to Nigeria which will definitely lead o budget deficit. Project stated for completion may not get government support since the government would be battling it’s balance  of payment deficit.


       There are some indispensable constraints that affect research works. Most importantly is the non availability of financial resource to be used in traveling to the head quarter of major oil companies like  chevron , shell BP and Golf oil all situated in Lagos.  Much as the study is not aimed at discrediting any individual or group or any constituted authority. Most people in possession of relevant information find it difficult to release them suspecting that to do so would lead to their being believed of their post.


   To enquire information from NNPC is like chasing a white elephant. It was made clear that feels and figures about oil were guarded secret. The study is limited to news papers , past literature , test books and questionnaire from filling station managers , where we get practical facts.


   To asses whether the strategy for attaining each of the indicant of performance was well implemented , two hypothesis are stated for testing these are-:Ho: petroleum scarcity has no effect in the economic

                H1: : petroleum scarcity has  effect in the economic development.


Petroleum – is mineral oil which originated from forest I prehistoric time found underground and obtained from wells , used in various forms.

Scarce – is not available in sufficient quantity not to the demand .

Effect – is a degree or extent result , outcome of the heat upon metals.

 Economics – is a science of the production distribution and consumption of gods condition of a country as to material prosperity.

Unemployment – is the state of being unemployed.

Resources – is the wealth, supplies of goods, raw materials, which a person, country or state has or can use.

Agriculture – is the science or practice of farming, cultivation of man to the soil.

project topics   project topics and materials 


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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