CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Project Topics and Research Project Materials 


Overtime, public expenditure has always been a lubricant in physical and human capital formation. Government has the obligation of protecting and providing basic amenities for the citizenry (Abdullah, 2010). The protection function includes establishment of the rule of law, enforcing and protecting the rights of the citizenry in order to avoid crime cases. The provision function involves basic amenities like stable power supply, good transportation network, good health facilities, quality education, agriculture, etc. philosophers like Hobbes and Locke predict how dreadful the society would have been in the absence of government (Devarjan, Swaroop and Zou 2006).

Economic theory pointed that it is not really about the size of the government, but what matters most is the cost and the benefits of the resources allocated; to determine whether the allocated resources either increases or decreases the state of the economy. Public expenditure is a basic economic policy that immensely contributes to the sustainable development of the economy. For instance, the expenditure on education, health, infrastructure like road, communication, and power improves the productivity of labour and increase the growth of national output. Furthermore, scholars like Abdullah (2010) and Cooray (2009) summarized that a well mapped out and implemented expenditure contributes positively to the economic growth of a country.

Through an investigation that was carried out on the fiscal operation of Nigeria, it was discovered that education is grouped under social and community services sector; thus, making education a public good which is a means to an end (Orubu, 1989). The core benefit of education is tied towards understanding, controlling, altering and redesigning of human environment (CBN, 2000). Education improves quality of living- health, productivity and chance of getting a good job (Anyanwu et al., 1999). Education and development are interrelated has pointed out by Ola (1998: 14) “If you see any economy that is not doing well, find out what is spent on education”. That is the reason why scholars such as psacharopoulos (1973), Combs (1985) and Aboribo (1999) reiterated that an increase in per capita income and in the nation’s GDP is due to education and observable differences amongst nations lies in what was allocated to their human development. No wonder the ‘Asian Tigers’ in the last three decades allocated about 25-35% of their annual budgets to their education sector (Aboribo, 1999:61).

In most developing countries, providing basic education is the first priority of the government. Education is a right and a responsibility for everyone without limitations (Anyanwu et al., 1999). According to Benjamin Franklin, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, “An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest.” It is a transforming tool that can change the world. Fund has always been a major problem the education system of Nigeria encounters. Thus, it is urgent to close the gap experienced in funding the education sector, in order for students to enjoy all that is required to aid quality education. Education in Nigeria is characterized by dilapidated structures, sub-standard libraries, poorly equipped laboratories, etc. in addition; many Nigerian students are taught only theories with no practical to make the acquired knowledge complete.

Subsequently, budgetary allocations to the education sector keep falling below the UNESCO’s benchmark of 26% of a country’s annual budget. Here is a brief pattern of what Nigeria’s allocation to education looks like- N448.01 billion (2017), N369.6 billion (2016), N483 billion (2015), N495 billion (2014), N427 billion (2013). A look at the above data proves that the allocation to education sector is not meeting the standards of UNESCO. The after-effect of this is reflected in the economic growth of Nigeria as “No improvement is possible with unimproved people” (Galbrouth, 1964).

However, the purpose of this study is to examine public expenditures on education in Nigeria: issues, estimates and some implications.


Over decades little has been allocated to education, and this is reflecting in its output.

Yearly, unemployable graduates are produced into the society as a result of poor funding of the education system. Graduates are taught purely theory without practical; for instance, a mass communication graduate may not be able to identify a console in a studio, though this example is not particular to mass communication graduates only. Due to the absence of teaching aids, teachers/lecturers are lazy in discharging their duties; they use it as an excuse.

In addition, inadequate public expenditure on education has made Nigerian students lack confidence in them that they cannot compete with their peers from other countries.

These are some of the problems of the topic under study.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY                          

The major objective of this study is to examine public expenditures on education in Nigeria: Issues, estimates and some implications.

                Other specific objectives include:

1.To investigate the significant relationship between public expenditure and national development.

2.To examine the relationship between public expenditure on education and human capital development.

3.To examine the reasons for low public expenditure on education.

4.To identify ways of correcting the implication of low expenditures of education on student’s performance.

5.To recommend means of improving public expenditure on education in Nigeria.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS                                                        

The following research questions are generated to guide this study:

What is the significant relationship between public expenditure and national development? What is the relationship between public expenditure on education and human capital development? What are the reasons for low public expenditure on education? What are the ways of correcting the implication of low expenditures of education on student’s performance? What are the means of improving public expenditure on education in Nigeria


H0:   There is no significant relationship between public expenditure on education and human capital development.

H1:   There is a significant relationship between public expenditure on education and human capital development.


This study is meant to inform, educate, sensitize and enlighten the general public, university administrators, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations and government on public expenditures on education in Nigeria: issues, estimates and some implications.

This study aims at bringing to the knowledge of the government that the revenue allocated to education does not improve the state of the economy, rather it has made Nigeria really backward in other sectors of the economy. the study is coming as a wake-up call to the government to step-up on its allocation to the education sector, even as education contributes in the positive growth of the economy. 

This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other work or study.


This study is restricted to public expenditures on education in Nigeria: issues, estimates and some implications.

Limitations of study

1.        Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). 2.        Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


PUBLIC EXPENDITURE: Is spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pension, provision, infrastructure, etc. Until the 19th century, public expenditure was limited as laissez faire philosophies believed that money left in private hands could bring better returns.

ISSUES: An important topic or problem for debate or discussion

ESTIMATE: An opinion or judgment especially of the value or quality of something or to judge tentatively or approximately the value, worth, or significance of something.

IMPLICATION: The conclusion that can be drawn from something, although it is not explicitly stated.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization): Is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the heir of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programmes, international science programmes, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press, regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group


Abdullah, H. A. (2010). The relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in Saudi Arabia. Journal of

Admin. Science, 12(2), 173-191.

Psacharopoulos, G. 1973. Returns to Education. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Inc. Publishers.

Coombs, P.H. 1985. The World Crisis in Education: The View from the Eighties. New York: Oxford University Press.

Aboribo, R.1999. “University Funding and Development in Nigeria”, (pp.57-67) in P.C. Egbon, and C. O. Orubu (eds.)

Critical Issues in Nigeria’s Development .Abraka: Faculty of the Social Sciences, Delta State University.

Galbrait, J.K. 1964. Economic Development. London: O.U.P.

Anyawu, J.C., A. Oyefusi, H. Oaikhenam and F.A. Dimowo 1997. Structure of the Nigeria Economy. Onitsha: Joanee Education Publishers Ola, Vincent 1998. “Education in National Development”. Vanguard Newspaper August 2.

Central Bank of Nigeria 2000. The Changing Structure of the Nigerian Economy and Implications for Development. Lagos: Realm Communications Ltd.

Devarjan, S., Swaroop, V. & Zou, H. (2006). The composition

of public expenditure and economic growth. Journal of Monetary Economics, 37, 313-344.

Cooray, A. (2009). Government expenditure, governance and economic growth, Comp. Econ. Stud, 51(3), 401-418.

Orubu, C.O. 1989. “A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Influencing Federal Government Expenditure on Education”.

Abraka Journal of Education, 1: 150-162.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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