ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN NIGERIA (A Case Study Of Kwara State Agricultural Development Project Ilorin)
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table Of Content vi
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Aim and Objective
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the study
1.5 Significant of the study
1.6 Organization and plan of the study
2.1 Accounting system
2.2 The objective needs for accounting information
2.3 Users of accounting information
2.4 Criteria the accounting system should meet
2.5 Accounting records
2.6 Accounting of non-profit making organization
3.2 Research population and sample
3.3 Sources of data
3.4 Administration of instrument
3.5 Method of data analysis
3.6 Research limitation
3.7 Historical background of agricultural development project Ilorin
Data analysis, presentation and interpretation
4.1 Analysis of data via questionnaire
4.2 Testing of hypothesis
4.3 Discussion and finding
Summary, recommendation and conclusion
1.3 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Since 1974 the bank has committed $1.2 billion for Agricultural
Development Projects (ADPs) to increase farm production and welfare among small holder in Nigeria. OED reviewed five ADPs and a supporting Agricultural Technical Assistance Project (ATAP) all implemented between 1979 and 1990. Only two of these six projects had satisfactory outcomes. In general, rainfed Agricultural production was far below projections. Macroeconomic condition, some national policies and particular design and implementation problems prevented amore significant impact.
Low cost irrigate development of low land area (Fadama) was. However, quite successful village water supply component exceeded their target. The ADPs have evolved to be “Permanent” institutions for rural infrastructural development and Agricultural services, but their role via a vis the regular state department need to be reviewed.
ADP concept:The ADPs were designed in response to a fall in Agricultural productivity, hence a concern to sustain domestic supplies as labor have move out of Agriculture into more remunerative activities that were benefiting from the oil boom. Conversely, domestic recycline of oil income provided the opportunity for the government with bank support to develop the ADPs the project provided Agricultural investment and services rural road and village water supplies the governments adop of the ADP concept but the small holder sector at the center of the Agricultural Development strategy, and market clear shift away from capital _ intensive investment project for selected areas of high Agricultural potential.
The first ADPs in Nigeria was enclave project each covering a specific region within a state. Their early result impressed both the federal and state government, and there was pressure to replicate, the approach across while states. In 1989 all Nigeria 19 states had ADPs.
Two of the project audited_Ilorin and Oyo north were enclave project and were located in the middle belt of Nigeria whose main crop are rainfed cereals and root crops. The three other ADPs audited. Bauchi, Kano and Sokoto were state wide project in Nigeria’s northern zone. Cropping in this zone is based on rainfed in drainage lines that can support higher_value crops.
The northern ADPs applied on expanded version of the same model used in the early enclave projects in this zone. This project demanded a large amounts of capital and services and intensive management with hind sight, not enough thought was given to the implication of the large increase in scale or indeed to the less favorable production environment than existed in the smaller enclave.
All the five ADPs sought to increase food production and farm incomes. In all of them it was assumed that productivity increase would come form the use of improved technology, especially plan ting materials and fertilizer.
The Agricultural component of the projects were designed around system for developing technology and transferring it to farmers, distributing modern inputs, and land development including small_scale irrigation of Fadama areas and land clearing.
Investment and infrastructural included an expanded feeder road network, construction of farm services centers for input distribution and facilities for ADPs staff and operation. All project excepts that in Ilorin supported improvement in rural water supplies.
To support the Agricultural development goals the federal government introduce control on food import and continued its subsidize on farm inputs, particularly fertilizer.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1. From 1979 to 1990 only two of the six projects had satisfactory
2. In general, rainfed Agricultural production was for below projections.
3. Some national policies, and particular design and implementation problem prevented a more significant impact.
4. Village water supply components exceeded their targets.
5. It was noted that there is poor communication of accounting information in the Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs).
6. The gap is occasion by ignorance, lack of trust and personality clash among ADPs staff. This hinder effective and efficient gathering and dissemination of accounting information in ADPs.
7. This create information gap among the financial and non_financial managers.
8. The tripartite funding and control of ADPs makes their accounting and data processing management different.
9. Incompetent on the part of the accounting personal is the major problem facing the accounting record in Agricultural Development Project.
10. Illiteracy on the part of the state holders or farmer is a big problem. Some farmers can not take or keep accurate records of income and expenditure account.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
The aim of this write up in there fold which are:-
(1) To highlight the importance of accounting system in agricultural project.
(2) To emphasized accounting obligation expected to every government accounting officers and their subordinate.
(3) To highlight the income of the government yearly or monthly, inform of income and expenditure account or budget.
(4) To apprise the government accounting system in general and that of Agricultural Development Project in particular (A.D.P).
(5) To emphasized on how to increase the account of national income in the Kwara State by using development fund for purpose of capital development project.
(6) To ensure positive record about the public by reducing the level of poverty.
(7) To ensure higher rate of working population
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study of designed to reveal the accounting system of a
typical government establishment.
However, have stated early on, the study will be limited to the Accounting system in Kwara Agricultural Development Project to this effect chapter four will be use to analyse the outcome of the finding, Hence, chapter for covers the following aspect.
1. Financial document and records.
2. The forms of receipt and payment.
3. Area office and store accounting.
1.7 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The numerous importance of the study can not cover emphasis
due to these aspects which as following:-
1. Government:- The significance of the study in the area of government can not be emphasize. It provide the statement of the account, that is to increase the capital intensive or laborer intensive techniques, since food procurement is inventible in nay economy.
It also provide changing of the raw materials from other countries.
2. Society:- Agricultural accounting is also importance in that, it help to evaluate the production level of food in relation to its population. If it’s able to meet the food demanded by it citizen.
It provide income, food and raw material which lead to increase in the standard of living as well as economic growth and development.
3. Individuals:- It help individual to know the area of the land to be use, it also increase the knowledge on how to improve in the area of production. Account of his Agricultural practice will make him to know his performance whether he his progressing or not to a state or a country.
It also to prepare income and expenditure yearly, monthly e.t.c
1.8 ORGANISATION AND PLAN OF THE STUDY
The project consist of five chapter, the first consist of
introduction, background, statement of the problem and objective of the study, significant of the study, organization and plan of the study.
The second chapter which two consist of Accounting system
source of finance information, user of Accounting record and function of Accounting department.
Chapter three consist of history of Agricultural development
research methodology, interview, questionnaire and problem associated with the research methodology.
Chapter five comprises of Summary, Conclusion and
2.1 ACCOUNTING SYSTEM
ABDULSALAM TUNDE . S (Dec, 2005) defined Accounting
system developed in response to the need of information about business activities as an aid to both management and outsiders in making rational economic decision.
Thus, Accounting is often said to be the language of business. It
is use in the business world to describe the transaction entered in to by all kind of organization. Accounting terms concept and convention are therefore, used by people bankers law years, estate agent, stock broker on accountants. Accounting like other discipline, has its own words, and terms which means another thing in ordinary language usage.
Thus, actual record making phase of Accounting is usually
called book_keeping. However accounting extends for beyond the actual making of record. It is concerned with the use to which these record are put their analysis and interpretation.
Accounting concept can be trace to the year 36BC. The first
record of complete system of double entries book_keeping was found in the record of Mediava (Merchant of Genova) in Italy in the year 1340. But the actual double entry of book_keeping originated simultaneously in several Italian trading centre over a period of time earlier than that fate.
The first published work describing the double entry
book_keeping system and giving insight into the reasoning behind the accounting system is the summa de Arithmetic Geometric proportion et proportionality (Meaning everything about Arithmetic Geometry proportion) published by Luca Pacilio in 1494.
The industrial revolution which take place in Britain in the 18th
century ushered in Automated machineries for the British industries and his automation brought with it some unique changes in the structure of industries, including the introduction of unprecedented volume of finance into business which was made possible only because of the effective and widespread use of book_keeping and accounting.
In Nigeria in 1970’s the introduction of indigenization, decree brought with it change in ownership of industry and massive amount of capital has to change hand. The importance of accounting was manifest and self_evident..