THE EVALUATION OF ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN THE OIL INDUSTRIES (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA NATIONAL PETROLEUM COMPANY ILORIN).
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Objective of the study
1.3 Scope of the study
1.4 Research hypothesis
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Delimitation of the study
1.7 Definition of major terms
2.0 Review of related literature
2.1 Accounting defined
2.2 Accounting as an information system
2.3 Parties interested in the accounting information
2.4 Qualities of ideal accounting information
2.5 The nature and types of financial accounting convention
2.6 Accounting concept and convention
3.0 Research method
3.1 Research design
3.3 Sample and sampling technique
3.4 Research instrument
3.5 Validity of the instrument
3.6 Administration of the instrument
3.7 Data analysis procedure
4.0 Data presentation and analysis
4.1 Data presentation
4.2 Data analysis
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The importance of accounting cannot be over emphasize for accounting is needed at the birth of an organization during the life time of the organization and at the death of the organization (i.e. winding up). Accounting can be described as the mid-wife and of the company at birth, guardian during life time and successor of the death.
Changing social attitude combine with developments in information technology, quantitative method and behavioral sciences to affect radically the environment with accounting operates today, hereby creating the need to re-evaluate the objective of accounting in a under perspective.
Accounting is moving away from its traditional procedural base, encompassing record keeping and such related work as the presentation of budgets and final accounts, towards the adoption of a rob which emphasizes its social importance, the changing environments have extended the boundaries of accounting and have created a problem of defining the scope of the subject. There is need for a definition which is broad enough to deliberate it boundaries, while sufficiently precise as a statement of its essential nature. A more recent definition which his less rest native in interpreting accounting as “the process of trying measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgments and decide by the users of instruction system is a set of element by the which operate together in order to obtain a goal”
Accounting system could be said to be universal in outlook, it is worthy to note that what actively universal are the underlying basic concepts of accounting as usually regulated by such instruments as the international accounting standards (IAS). Statement of standard accounting practice (SSAP) etc. These instrument are always in the particularly to final account as made available to the public. International accounting system differ from nation to nation, sector to sector and organization.
This project therefore is to study and peculiars of accounting system being operated in the oil industry with special reference to chevron Nigeria limited.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Roy sidebothan (2005) said “the act of accounting has an economics setting. It is expected to add to that knowledge who engages in commercial and financial interaction. To construct general notion about accounting, it is therefore necessary to draw on knowledge of the ways in which people act individually and collectively, in economic matters”.
However, poorly or well it might be done, it must serve some functions. If the functions can be ascertained and specified it will be possible to deduce the form which accounting should takes and if the deal from of accounting can be stated it should be possible to judge whether or not any present practice yield information’s will serve the stipulated functions and in what direction improvements may made”.
Generally, the accounting problems confronting all industries are numerous and very with difference organization. The underlisted factors can be responsible for the analyzed problems of efficiency, problem of effectiveness, problem of comprehensiveness, etc. The above mentioned problems have some re-tardetive effects on the organization drive towards acting its organization goals and objectives.
The research work is no accounting system as it concerns oil industry this time was chosen because of the researcher’s interest in knowing more about the accounting system in oil industry as compared to other industries in Nigeria.
After serving under the student industrial working experience scheme (SIWES) at the Chevron Nigeria Limited, the author have been nursing the ideal that one day the researcher will have opportunity to conduct an intensive research into the accounting system of the establishment (Cheviron Nigeria Limited). There would be no better opportunity to make this “dream’ comes true.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary aim of the study is to analyses the accounting system as its concerns exploration and production of crude oil and other related products. Other purpose which this research will serve include the ascertainment of effectiveness, efficiency and comprehensive of the accounting system.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will deal with accounting system adopted by Chevron Nigeria Limited as it concern crude production and petroleum products.
In carring out this study, the research will look into various accounting standard, policies and system. This study strictly based on chevron Nigeria limited, the decision to limit the study to this organization is as a result of time and cost that will be involved in gathering data.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses underlying this research will be tested in the course of the research.
1. That the existing accounting system is effective in relations to credit control.
2. That the accounting system though would have been efficient, but for lack of necessary personnel for implementation.
3. that the financial or accounting needs of the organization is satisfied by the existing system
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is to examine the positive impact of corporation account with particular reference to the Nigeria National petroleum corporation (NNPC) Ilorin depot.
Also, the result at this study will help the management to maintain the present accounting system, maintenance of an accounting system is tasking and demanding, it takes a lot just as instituting efficient accounting system, it is easier to get to the top than maintaining the top position, the management should ensure at all time that all the instituted control are working efficiently and effectively for the production of an efficient accounting system.
1.6 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research is based on chevron Nigeria Limited: the decision to limit the study to this organization is as a result of time and cost that will be involved in gathering data.
1.7 DEFINATION OF MAJOR TERMS
Accounting policy. This is the account bases and methods used with reference to others to the specific needs of the business.
Accounting can be defined as the process of identifying, measuring and communicating economics information to permit informed judgment and decision by the users of the information.
Cost accounting: this is the process of finding the actual cost of product operations and department and possibly comparing them in the estimated or ideal cost.
Data: is defined as the collecting facts expressed as symbols and characters which have no meaning and are unable to influence decision until it is transformed into information.
Management accounting: This is defined as the application of professional knowledge and skill in the preparation and presentation of accounting information in such a way as to assist management in the formulating polices and in the planning and control of the operation of the undertaking.
Periodicity. This is the way dividing the life of the business into specified accounting period in order to provide information to those who need the information e.g quarterly, yearly.
Population: Population is defined as the whole site of individual which from the subject of study in a particular Survey. It is the totality of cases that conform to some designated specification.
Realization: Recognition of Relevance at point where it is reasonable certain that is been earned..