THE ROLE OF COMPUTER IN ACCOUNTING RECORD [A CASE OF STUDY OF PHCN PLC, ILORIN]


THE ROLE OF COMPUTER IN ACCOUNTING RECORD [A CASE OF STUDY OF PHCN PLC, ILORIN]  

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE 

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENT 

CHAPTER ONE: - INTRODUCTION

1.0 – INTRODUCTION

1.1 – OBJECTIVE IN THE STUDY

1.2 – PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

1.3 – SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.4 – SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.5 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.6 – ORGANIZATION AND PLAN OF THE STUDY

1.7 – DEFINITION OF TERM 

CHAPTER TWO: - LITERATURE REVIEW 

2.1 – LITERATURE REVIEW 

2.2 – HISTRORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

2.3 – REASON FOR INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER INTO ACCOUNT SYSTEM

2.4 – CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER 

CHAPTER THREE: - STUDY AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 – ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF NEPA PLC ILORIN

3.2 – BRIEF HISTORY OF ACCOUNT

3.3 – PROCEDURE FOR PROCESSING COLLECTED DATA 

3.4 – LIMITATION OF THE METHODOLOGY

3.5 – THE OBJECTIVE OF THE ACCOUNT DEPARTMENT 

3.6 – THE OBJECTIVE OF COMPUTER CENTER 

3.7 – PROBLEM AND DIS ADVANTAGES INVOLVED IN 

THE  USES OF     COMPUTER  

3.8 – HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

3.9 – IMPORTANCE AND DISADVANTAGES OF 

COMPUTER IN  ACCOUNTING SYSTEM.

3.10 – THE INCOMING PAYMENT REGISTER 

CHAPTER FOUR: - SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECCOMMENDATION

4.1 – SUMMARY

4.2 – CONCLUSION

4.3 – RECOMMENDATION

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In Nigeria there been general in the case of the use of computer in analyzing data in accounting record. Furthermore, the computer can make use of the following section in any department accounts receivable, warehouse inventory and manufacturing companies of factories. 

To this effected, we have chosen the power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) Ilorin, as a case study to look at were computer sector in their account department and their services to the public. This is so because the account department has not yet life up to the expectation of the who use their services. For example why document take there month to bring bill to the computer into the custom and now with introduction of the computer into the accounting department, we want to see what are doing to improve on their performance.

1.2 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY    

Towards achieving its objective it evaluates accounting record in power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) Ilorin. The improvement that is made with the introduction of computerized method. In order to achieve this purpose, the following specific are set out for the project. 

(1) The computer centers are keeping account records of payment made by customers.

(2) The make sure that bill sent to customers state the true amount to be paid and give information out quickly and more orderly.

(3) Improving and advancing records I.e. it make work easier. 

(4) Speeding up recording in accounting department.

    More orderly .

iii)    Speeding up recording in accounting department

iv)     Improving and advancing records i.e. it make –  

         work easier. 

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

From this project, it is expected that  accountant and readers alike with little  or no  previous experience in  computer to be their follow the main discourse and foundation     thus, understand of the computer technology and applications 

The significance of his study is to form basic of a continuing study so that accountant and other readers will not be at the mercy of the computer scientist but be able r to interact usefully with them. Also, thus study intends to state  the advantage of the  computerized  system over the manual this study  shall also include some of the handicaps that   have discouraged the spear of computerized system  . 

1.4 SCOPE AND  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 

The project intends to look into the role of  computer in accounting records and what it has achieved  in organization like ( PHCN ) ilorin since it commencement of operation.

This study shall discuss how effective the use of computer has helped in achieving the objectives of management and importance. 

One cannot escape certain circumstances that are beyond ones control. This is the financial constraint, line within the project work is to be submitted and most especially the time taken to facts from respondents and their attitude to the question asked. 

1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 

The method of research used in this project comprises both   primary and secondary data collection. 

The primary data collection   consists of data collected from individuals within the organization of accounting department of PHCN  Ilorin through personal interview and oral interview is  used among the  member of  staff and some third parties that have adequate of the organization. This  is meant to achieved information  about to corporation as a who concerning their aim accounting records. 

The secondary data collection consists of work on other people and the authors such as textbooks, journal, newspapers, magazines etc. 

1.6 PLAN OF THE STUDY 

The whole project work is divided into five main computers and each chapter is based on different sub- heading. 

The first chapter deals with general introduction of the study and importance, the area to be covered by the study  constraints  and methods of obtaining  the information, which would help in bringing  the  study to completion stage . 

The chapter four presents the date and the analysis while chapter five, which is the last chapter, contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation. 

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS 

i. Source document: this is original document which is the sources of a particular data e.g. a customer order form , sources is referred as BATCH PROCESSING. 

ii. HARDWARE: The physical components of a computer system consisting of monitor, keyboard and printer etc. 

If you are to use a computer to solve a problem your hardware must be sufficiently 

The amount of money, the size of the storage the speed of the computer, and the speed and quantity  of the printer are all factor that determine whether you can solve the problem or not.

iii. SOFT WARE: Another name for the program that tell the computer how to carry out a particular task. There are tens of thousand of application program available. 

iv. READ: Is the process of  transferring data  from an external medium  to the store  of the central process or not 

v. WRITE: The process of transferring data store of the central process or the peripheral devices. 

vi. Program: This is the list of instruction presentation to computer in one of the programming languages, which cause the computer to perform a sequence of operation .  

vii. DATA: is the name give  to a basic is fact e.g. the number of items sold by a business, the name a customers or a commercial value used in mathematical formula

viii. Information: a distinction some time made between data information when data is converted in to more useful or intelligible form them it is sold to be processed into information. 

ix. CENTRAL PROCESSINGUNIT (CPU: That part of the computer system containing the memory the arithmetic and logical unit as well the control unit. This is the hub of the computer system the peripheral must be controlled. 

x. PERIPHERAL : Parts of the computer system other than the central processor e.g. keyboard, card reader and  printer  

xi. AUXILARY STORAGE: This can also be called an external or backing store for storing data which have not gotten a place in main storage. 

xii. MAIN STORE: Is the main storage o the computer or internal store.

1. The make sure that bill to sent to customers state the true amount to be paid and give information   out quickly and move orderly

2. Speeding up recording in accounting department 

3. Improving and advancing records i.e. it make easier

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

From project, intends to look into the role of computer in accounting records and what it has achieved in organization like (PHCN () ilorin since it commencement of operation. 

This study shall discuss how effective the used of computer has helped in achieving the objectives of management and importance.

One cannot escape certain circumstances that are beyond one’s control. This is the financial constraints line within the project work is to be submitted and most especially the time taken to facts from respondents and their attitude to the time taken   to facts from respondents and their attitude to the question asked. 

1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 

The method of research used in this project comprises both primary and secondary data collection.

The primary data collection consists of data collected from individuals within the organization of accounting department of PHCH Ilorin through personal interview and oral interview. The oral interview is used for the management  of the staff gather  information  about the management  while the oral interview I is used among the member of staff and  some third parties that  have adequate  of he organization  . This is meant to acquisition. This is meant to acquire aim accounting records.

The secondary data collection consists of work of work on other people and the authors such as text book, journal news papers magazines etc. 

1.6 PLAN  OF THE STUDY 

The whole project work is divided into five main computers and each chapter based on different sub-heading. 

The first chapter  deals with general introduction  of the study  and importance  the are to be covered by the study constraints and methods of obtaining the information  , which  would help in bringing the  study  to completion stage   the third chapter presents a case study  and brief  history PHCN Ilorin  and methodology . 

The chapters four present the data and the analysis while chapter five, which is the last chapter, contains the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

1. SOURCE DOCUMENT: This is original document which is the source of a particular data e.g. a customer order form, source document are accumulated and processed as a single unit which is referred as BATCH PROCESSING.

2. HARDWARE: The physical components of a system consisting of monitor, keyboard, and printer etc. you are to use a computer to solve a problem your hardware must be sufficiently.

The amount of money, the size of the storage speed of the computer, and the speed and quantity of the printer are all factor that determine whether you can solve the problem or not.

3. SOFTWARE: Another name for the program that tell

the computer how to carry out a particular task. There are tens of thousand of application program available.

4. READ: Is the process of transferring data from an external medium to the store of the central process or not.

5. WRITE: The process of transferring data store of the central process or the peripheral devices.

6. PROGRAM: This is the list of instruction presentation to computer to one of the programming languages, which cause the computer to perform a sequence of operation.

7. DATA: Is the name given to a basic fact e.g. the number of items sold by a business, the name a customers or a commercial value used in mathematical formula.

8. INFORMATION: A distinction sometime made between data and information when data is converted into more useful or intelligent form, then it is converted in the processed information.

9. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU): That part of the computer system containing the memory, the arithmetic and logical unit as well as the control unit. This is the hub of the computer system the peripheral must be controlled.

10. PERIPHERAL: Parts of the computer system other than the central Processor e.g. keyboard, card reader and printer.

11. AUXILIARY STORAGE: This can also be called an external or backing store for storing data which have not gotten a place in main storage.

12. MAIN STORAGE: Is the main storage of the computer or the internal store.

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 LITERATIVE REVIEW

The electronic authority payment and payroll system has the aim of providing correct information of receiving and payment of salaries, wages, together with allowance of staff while maintaining on up to data fie of current program records, capable of providing useful management information on a regular basis.

The computer payment system provision similar output in the existing manual system but the calculation prior to printing (the example, payment, statement, reduction, lists, payroll, updates etc.) is primarily computer base.

The system makes use of five main media for providing, processing of information mainly:

i) Input document

ii) Transaction file

iii) Computer file

v) Report file

The payment and salaries variation advice is used to provide information in respect of the computer report on payment and for computer personal emolument master file in written form. The information in the payment and salary variation advice is received in the computer payment and payroll section and translated to Input Street, which are batched and forwarded with batch headers to the data control section of the computer center.

Here the information is keyed into the computer data entry section of the computer center. The data keyed in the computer to up data related records of accounts in the master use the transaction file of the payment on salary variation advices to produce relevant reports.

Examples of computer file are:

1 Master file: This contains the form used to create new account for customers wishing to use facilities to the authority.

2 Deduction file: This contains any input form that a state offers of terminates any deduction from customers payment.

3 Record changes: is an input file record used to change a customer existing records.

4 Change of status file: These contain records of a staff existing payroll to reflect an alteration in his/her payment of salary.

5 Allowance file: All granting altering of termination of any types of allowance is contained here.

2.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF COMPUTER

Computer technology is a very young filed, still undergoing changes rapidly. In order to make sense of her field as it exists today, it helps to know something about its history data processing increased very tremendously.

However, the age of the modern computer began in 1939 when Dr. Howard Aiken of Harvard University completed plans for a calculating machine that embodied many of the principals used in today’s computer. Dr Aiken’s machine called the automatic sequence controlled calculator was in 1944. it combined in a single integrated device the ability to resolve input perform a sequence of calculation and record input.

In 1946, J prosper Eckert and DR john Macaulay faculty member of the more school of engineering of the university of Pennsylvania completed the first actual electronic computer called ENIAC on abbreviation of electronic numerical integrator and computer .The largest computer like ENIAC were called mainframe and typically most more than a million dollars designed for used by a major company of a government installation ,they were housed in a large room required special electrical cabling and air conditioning .ENIAC was the first computer available commercially unite .UNIVAC computer was developed .J.P Eckert and Macaulay computer built during the period of the universal automatic computer (UNIVAC) to the late 50’s use vacuum tubes and are identified as second generation computer international business machine (IBM), which had not been particularly activities.

           In the development of computer .they entered into the computer business with IBM 701 in IBM installed the first of the IBM 650 computer. The small to medium scale computer was most popular computer during the next five year, except for the early universal automatic computers .IBM has dominate the computer industry ever since.

Unit 1970 it provide software and education service at no extra change to those purchasing or renting their computer and leave little double about the fact that electronic computer is one of the most significant development of advance counties.

COMPUTER GENERATION 

FIRST GENERATION: computer using electronic (circa 1940)

 SECOND GENERATION: more reliable computer using transistor, which replace the first generation (circa, 1950) THIRD GENERATION:   more powerful reliable and impact computer using simple integrated circuits (circa,1960 and early 1970)

FOURTHLY GENERATION: the computer in use today which contain more sophisticate micro electronic devices.

FIFTY GENERATION: computer at according to prediction of this century will have been development which will be able to cause with people in a human like manner which will be able to manner human senses, manual skills and Intelligence,

.

THE ROLE OF COMPUTER IN ACCOUNTING RECORD [A CASE OF STUDY OF PHCN PLC, ILORIN]



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