This research tends to examine information technology and systems audit with reference to First Bank  Nigeria Plc.

The research employ survey design and a simple random sampling technique was adopted for selection of respondents the questionnaires were administered to. A sample of twenty (20) was drawn from the entire population.

Data gathered from the respondents were presentated on tables in percentage. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested with use of Chi-square analysis. The results of the test shows that Information Technology and Systems Audit has a positive influence on the Banking sector in Nigeria and Systems Audit has a positive impact on the computer systems security and information security within an organisation.

Recommendations were proffered to banks to implore the use of information technology.




1.1       Background Information                    

1.2       Statement of the problem                                         

1.3       Aims of the study                               

1.4       Objectives of the study

1.5       Research Methodology

1.6       Research Questions                           

1.7       Research Hypotheses             

1.8       Significance of the Study

1.9       Limitations/Scope of the Study

1.10     Research Outline                               

CHAPETR 2     

REVIEW OF LITERATURE                               

2.1       Introduction   

2.2       An overview of Information Technology Audit                     

2.3       Types of Information System

2.4       Information Systems Audit Process                                       

2.5       Information technology and Systems Audit              

2.6       Objectives of Information Systems Audit                                          

2.7       Information System Audit Methodology       

2.8       Summary of Related Literature         

CHAPTER 3                 


3.1       Research Design

3.2       Research Population                                      

3.3       Tools for collecting data                                

3.4       Data Analysis and Procedures                       

CHAPTER 4     


4.1       Introduction                                                   

4.2       Demographies of respondents                       

4.3       Analysis of Research Questions                                             

4.4       Analysis of Research Hypotheses                                                       

CHAPTER 5     


5.1       Summary of Findings                                                             

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendations     





Information according to Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) was defined as data endowed with meaning and purpose. Today, information plays an increasingly important role in all aspects of our lives. Information has become an indispensable component for conducting business for virtually all organizations. In a growing number of companies, information is the business. Some might not think of software as information, but it is simply information for computers on how to operate or process something. In addition, a significant amount of data is created and distributed by end users without involving the IT organisation.

Traditional organisations have undergone radical transformations in the information age as well. The graphic arts and printing industry, for example, deals almost entirely with information in digital form. Artwork and masters are no longer physical drawings on pieces of film but blocks of information stored on hard disks. Finally, many other organisations continue to strive for a paperless environment as well.

It would be difficult to find a business that has not been touched by information technology and is not dependent on the information it processes. Information systems have become pervasive in global society and business, and the dependence on these systems and the information they handle is arguably absolute. The trend of escalating value of and dependence on information has increased exponentially.

Information Technology Auditing (IT auditing) began as Electronic Data Process (EDP). Auditing are developed largely as a result of the rise in technology in accounting systems, the need for IT control, and the impact of computers on the ability to perform attestation services. The last few years have been an exciting time in the world of IT auditing as a result of the accounting scandals and increased regulation. IT auditing has had a relatively short yet rich history when compared to auditing as a whole and remains an ever changing field.

The introduction of computer technology into accounting systems changed the way data was stored, retrieved and controlled. It is believed that the first use of a computerized accounting system was at General Electric in 1954. During the period of 1954 to the mid-1960s, the auditing profession was still auditing around the computer. At this time only mainframe computers were used and few people had the skills and abilities to program computers. This began to change in the mid-1960s with the introduction of new, smaller and less expensive machines. This increased the use of computers in businesses and with it came the need for auditors to become familiar with EDP concepts in business. Along with the increase in computer use, came the rise of different types of accounting systems. The industry soon realized that they needed to develop their own software and the first of the generalized audit software (GAS) was developed. In 1968, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) had the Big Eight (now the Big Four) accounting firms participate in the development of EDP auditing. The result of this was the release of Auditing & EDP. The book included how to document EDP audits and examples of how to process internal control reviews.

Around this time EDP auditors formed the Electronic Data Processing Auditors Association (EDPAA). The goal of the association was to produce guidelines, procedures and standards for EDP audits. In 1977, the first edition of Control Objectives was published. This publication is now known as Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (CobiT). CobiT is the set of generally accepted IT control objectives for IT auditors. In 1994, EDPAA changed its name to Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA). The period from the late 1960s through today has seen rapid changes in technology from the microcomputer and networking to the internet and with these changes came some major events that change IT auditing forever.

The relentless advance of IT and the unparalleled ability to access, manipulate and use information has brought enormous benefits and opportunities to the global economy (ISACA). It has also brought unparalleled new risks, ethical dilemmas, and a confounding pathwork of existing and pending laws and regulations, as well as social changes and related issues such as telecommuting and increased mobility.

Executive management is increasingly confronted by the need to stay competitive in the global economy and heed the promise of greater gains from the deployment of more information resources. But even as organisations reap those gains, the twin spectres of increasing dependence on information and the systems that support it and advancing risks from a host of threats are forcing management to face difficult decisions about how to effectively address information security. In addition, scores of new and existing laws and regulations are increasingly demanding compliance and higher levels of accountability.

 Information security related to privacy of information, and information security itself, addresses the universe of risks, benefits and processes involved with information, and must be driven by executive management and supported by the board of directors.

Information security governance according to IT Governance Institute (2003) is the responsibility of the board of directors and executive management, and must be an integral and transparent part of enterprise governance. Information security governance consists of the leadership, organisational structures and processes that safeguard information. As in the case of controls, nothing has changed with respect to the basic premise of information as an asset. What has changed is the platform and repositories used for collecting, processing and storing information. This explains why the board and executive management continue to be responsible and accountable for the organisation’s most valuable asset, which is information.


The following lists of the statement of the problem are not exclusive but give an insight into the number and magnitude of these problems:

There is the problem of knowledge gap in the dynamics of Information Systems Audit i.e. people have failed to update themselves on the current issues as it relates with Information Systems Audit. There is also the problem of non-chalant attitude on the part of some of the Information System Auditors who have refused to do in-depth work in the course of their job.


The aim of this project is to:

(a)    To understand the concept of Information Technology and Systems audit in the financial sector of Nigeria and how it plays a very important role especially in the banking sector

(b)   To show the relevance of information technology and systems audit in First Bank.


The objectives of the study are:

To ascertain that Security provisions protect computer equipment, programs, communication and data from unauthorized access, modifications or destruction. To ascertain program development and acquisition are performed in accordance with management’s general and specific authorization. To determine an overview of Information Technology Audit. To ascertain the types of Information Technology Audit. To examine Information Systems Audit process. To establish the relationship Information Technology and Systems Audit.


Questionnaire was designed and administered to collect data which was analysed to solve some research questions and hypothesis. Methods or analysis are based on simple percentage and chi-square analysis.


Answers to the following questions will serve as solutions to the statement of the problems.

Does the organisation carry out her systems audit using the current control objectives? Does the organisation depend on their system for effectiveness? The information system personnel employed in the company are highly skilled and have good educational background. Are all passwords changed regularly especially the system administrator’s? Does the organisation have adequate third party technology support? Does the company encourage continuing technology education? Does the organisation have backup systems to save vital information? Does the company carry out hardware review evaluation on a periodic basis? Does the organisation carry out software review evaluation? Does the company assess the risk of server going down and upgrading it?


H0   Information Technology and Systems Audit has a positive influence on the Banking sector in Nigeria.

H1 Information Technology and Systems Audit does not have a positive influence on the Banking sector in Nigeria.

H0  Systems Audit has a positive impact on the computer systems security and information security within an organisation.

H1  Systems Audit does not have any impact on computer systems security and information security within an organisation.


The impact of information technology in business in terms of information and as a business enabler. It has increased the ability to capture, store, analyze, and process tremendous amounts of data and information, which has increased the empowerment of the business decision maker.

2           Professional associations and organizations, and government entities recognized the need for IT control and audit ability.

3           Corporate and information processing management recognized that computers were key resources for competing in the business environment and similar to other valuable business resource within the organization, and therefore, the need for control and audit ability is critical.(project topics   final year project topics )

4            The need by Auditor to use computers to perform attested function.

5          To ensure integrity of information system and reporting of organisation finances to

      avoid and hopefully prevent future financial fiasco


The scope of this study was limited to First Bank of Nigeria Plc a financial institution. It focused on the relevance of information technology in information system audit.

The limitations encountered in the study are as follows:

The problem of classified information which has affected the research of the study. Some respondents did not return the questionnaires given to them. The data involved in the study is too voluminous for a test of accuracy. Some workers in First Bank were not co-operative and so they could not provide useful information.


The study is broken down into 5 chapters and each chapter address the purpose of this paper work:

Chapter 1        Introduction

This should create a picture or overview of what the reader should expect in the study

Chapter 2        Review of Relevant Literature

This would show an in depth explanation into the scope of the study.

Chapter 3        Systems Designs/Design Methodology

This chapter will deal with the methods and procedures used in the research work. It will also describe the design of the study, area of the study, the population, the sample and sampling techniques. The method and instrument of data collection will be examined.

Chapter 4        Analysis of Results

It is concerned with the presentation, analysis and interpretation collected from the research. The analysis is based on findings extracted from the questionnaires that would be distributed.

Chapter 5        Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter will summarize, conclude and make recommendations for this write up.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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