APPLICATION OF MARGINAL COSTING TECHNIQUES IN MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING IN NESTLE FOOD PLC

APPLICATION OF MARGINAL COSTING TECHNIQUES IN MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING IN NESTLE FOOD PLC ABSTRACT   

This research work was undertaken to assess the concept and application of marginal costing techniques in management decision making reference to Nestle Food Plc. This work was intended to achieve the following objectives: Showing the importance of marginal costing as a tool for planning and short term decision making and to ascertaining the format to be used on presenting marginal costing information by management accountants to the management. Relevant data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire was the main primary data collected instrument employed while data from various relevant publications constituted the sources of secondary data. Upon the analysis of data the (SPSS) along with percentage mean item was used to analyze the questionnaires while ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis. The study established that the marginal costing technique is the key aspects of the Accountant’s job. The management Accountant ascertain whether the technique contributes to high quality decision making which will help him in reporting on magical casting techniques to Nigerian Nestle Food Plc, and the extent to which reliance can be placed on the technique. The overall objective of any organization is to maximize profit and hence increase in wealth of its shareholders. Based on the finding and conclusion arrived, it recommend that practicing management accountant should identify relevant cost and provide information to management on the effect of costs and revenues of charges in volume of output in the short run and Fixed cost should not be absorbed into product cost along with variable cost rather they should be treat as period cost which are simply charged to profit with fixed selling and administrative cost during that period by the management.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents                                                                           Pages

Title Page                                                                                 i

Certification                                                                             ii

Dedication                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                                   v

Table of Contents                                                                     vi

CHAPTER ONE:       INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study                                                  1

1.2       Purpose of Study                                                              4

1.3       Research Questions                                                         4

1.4       Statement of Hypothesis                                                  5

1.5       Significance of Study                                                                6

1.6       Organization of the Study                                                 7

1.7       Limitation and Scope of Study                                          7

1.8       Definition of Terms                                                           8

Reference                                                                         10

CHAPTER TWO:      LITERATURE REVIEW

2        

2.1       Introduction                                                                     11

2.2       Application of Marginal Costing – Make or Buy Decision   22

2.3       Cost Behaviour                                                                 24

2.4       The Treatment of Fixed Costs                                           28

2.5       Marginal Costing Techniques Versus Absorption

Costing Technique                                                           32

2.6       Application of Marginal Costing Techniques                     33

2.7       Decision Making with Limiting Factors And

Product Mix                                                                     35

2.8       Benefits of Marginal Costing                                             36

2.9       Problems of Marginal Costing                                           37

2.10   Current Literature Based on Each Relevant Variable,

Model and Theory                                                             38

2.11   Basic Concept of Cost Accountancy                                  40

2.12   Cost Accounting                                                               47

2.13   Contribution Margin                                                        56

2.14   Historical Background of Nestle Nigeria Plc                       58

References                                                                        62

CHAPTER THREE:  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3        

3.1       Introduction                                                                     63

3.2       Research Design                                                               63

3.3       Re-Statement of Research Questions                                64

3.4       Re-Statement of Research Hypotheses                              64

3.5       Population of the Study                                                    65

3.6       Sample and Sampling Technique                                     65

3.7       Research Instruments                                                      66

3.8       Methods of Data Collection                                               67

3.9       Analytical Tools                                                                67

3.10   Reliability of Instrument                                                   68

3.11   Validity of Instrument                                                      68

CHAPTER FOUR:    DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4        

4.1       Introduction                                                                     69

4.2       Analysis and Interpretation of Data                                  69

4.3       Testing of Hypotheses and Interpretation                          83

4.4       Discussion of Tested Hypotheses                                      85

CHAPTER FIVE:      SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

                                ROCMMENDATION

5        

5.1       Summary                                                                         86

5.2       Conclusion                                                                      87

5.3       Recommendation                                                             87

5.4       Suggestion for Further Studies                                         89

Bibliography                                                                    90

Questionnaire                                         

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

One of the most important things in life of a business is decision making. Decision making is an all pervasive activity taking place at every level in the organization, covering both the short and long term. It is concerned with the future and involves a choice between alternatives. The decision making of a business is centered upon the information possessed by the decision maker. However, plans are activated by decisions which require some of financial or qualitative analysis in order to make a rational choice. It is because of this that the practicing management Accountant is heavily engaged in producing relevant information for decision making purpose. The overall objective of a business enterprise is to make profit and as such, the decision on which method of reporting profit to be used at any given time is a very crucial management decision.

In traditional costing, there is a very crucial and two basic method of reporting profits. The emphasis in this research will, however, be on the importance of marginal costing techniques in the decision making process. These are:

Absorption costing/ full costing  Marginal costing period costing/direct costing

The practice of charging all costs both variable and fixed to operations, products or processes is termed as absorption costing.

The practice of charging all direct costs to operations, processes or products and leaving all indirect costs to be written off against profits in the period in which they arise is termed as direct costing. The technique differs from marginal costing because some fixed costs can be considered as direct costs in appropriate circumstances.

According to Browning, 2OOO) Marginal costing is a technique of costing in which allocation of expenditure to production is restricted to those expenses which arise as a result of production, e.g., materials, labor, direct expenses and variable overheads. Fixed overheads are excluded in cases where production varies because it may give misleading results. The technique is useful in manufacturing industries with varying levels of output. The features which distinguish marginal costing from absorption costing are as follows.

In absorption costing, items of stock are coasted to include a ‘fair share’ of fixed production overhead, whereas in marginal costing, stocks are valued at variable production cost only. The value of closing stock will be higher in absorption costing than in marginal costing. As a consequence of carrying forward an element of fixed production overheads in closing stock values, the cost of sales used to determine profit in absorption costing will: Include some fixed production overhead costs incurred in a previous period but carried forward into opening stock values of the current period; Exclude some fixed production overhead costs incurred in the current period by including them in closing stock values. In contrast marginal costing charges the actual fixed costs of a period in full into the profit and loss account of the period. (Marginal costing is therefore sometimes known as period costing.) In absorption costing, ‘actual’ fully absorbed unit costs are reduced by producing in greater quantities, whereas in marginal costing, unit variable costs are unaffected by the volume of production (that is, provided that variable costs per unit remain unaltered at the changed level of production activity). Profit per unit in any period can be affected by the actual volume of production in absorption costing; this is not the case in marginal costing. In marginal costing, the identification of variable costs and of contribution enables management to use cost information more easily for decision-making purposes (such as in budget decision making). It is easy to decide by how much contribution (and therefore profit) will be affected by changes in sales volume. (Profit would be unaffected by changes in production volume).

1.2 PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of this research work is to evaluate and critically examine marginal costing technique as an important tool for making managerial decisions. The objectives will include;

Showing the importance of marginal costing as a tool for planning and short term decision making. Ascertaining the format to be used on presenting marginal costing information by management Accountants to the management. Evaluating the extent to which marginal costing can be used for pricing method. Examining whether marginal costing has helped the management to achieve high profitability level. Ascertaining the relevant costs to be used in marginal costing computation

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

How effectively preferred is marginal costing techniques to absorption costing techniques in an organization To what extent has marginal costing techniques contributed to decision making in an organization? Does strict adherence to marginal costing technique enhance profitability level and growth of an organization? Does marginal costing techniques serves as a tool for planning and short term decisions?

1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

The following hypotheses are considered as the basis for the questions set for this study.

Ho: Marginal costing technique is not the best technique for decision making compared to Absorption costing techniques

Hi: Marginal costing technique is the best technique for decision making compared to Absorption costing techniques

Ho: Strict adherence to marginal costing technique does not enhance profitability level and growth of an organization compared to strict adherence to Absorption costing technique

Hi: Strict adherence to marginal costing technique enhance profitability level and growth of an organization compared to strict adherence to Absorption costing techniques

Ho: Marginal costing techniques does not serve as a tool for planning and short term decisions compared to absorption costing techniques.

Hi: Marginal costing techniques serves as a tool for planning and short term decisions compared to absorption costing techniques.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study is expected to be of tremendous help to students and managers in production sector of the economy. At the end of the study, it would be clearly understood and appreciated that marginal costing is a useful technique if used with care and adopted to meet the diverse conditions which apply in a real life environment.

The accounting terms and management, after this research work will now see to the fact that a good system of marginal costing techniques is necessary. This will help to reduce the work done by management and make job less complex and cumbersome. This study will advance the use of n costing technique as a good system of marginal costing technique is necessary tool to be used on making decision from the bondage of financial troubles woes. At the end of the study would be appreciated, how and why marginal costing can be an important and necessary aid to decision making.

In conclusion, the research study will be useful to Auditors, management of companies, research institutions, professional studies and general public.

1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work will be five (5) chapters for easy comprehension and proper organization. Chapter one will consist of the introduction, statement of problem, research questions, research hypothesis, purpose, scope and limitation of the study, significance of the study, organization, definition of terms of study. Basically, it gives an insight into what the project work is all about. Chapter two reviews relevant literature and the theoretical frame work on the subject matter, and chapter three states the methodology in which the research work is based on. Chapter four states the data analysis and interpretations and highlights the view of respondent on the subject matter. Chapter five state the summary, conclusion and recommendations of the research topic and with references.

1.7 LIMITATION AND SCOPE OF STUDY

This study could have been extended to cover as many companies in order to allow for more representations but due to time and financial constraints this study will be limited to the activities for Nestle Food Plc. The scope of this study will focus on the concept and application of marginal costing technique in Nestle Food Plc from 2001—2005 years of their financial statement.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Marginal Costing: This is a decision making technique used to determine the effect of cost on changes in the volume of time and output in a multi product firm especially in the short run. It treats direct costs and variable factory over head as product cot while treating all the fixed overheads as period cost. Absorption Costing: This is technique which absorbs fixed overhead into period cost through the use of a pre-determine overhead absorption rate which is Get annually after budgeted overhead are allocated to cost centres.

Decision Making: This is the process of selecting among alternatives coursed of action. It is the cost stage of planning process. Management Accounting: This is deflie as the application of professional knowledge and skill in the preparation of accounting information in order to as management in formulation of policies and in planning and control

Cost: This is the resource sacrificed or foregone to achieve a specific objective. It is usually measured as the monetary amount that must be paid to acquire goods and services.

Direct Costs: Are related to the particular cost object arid can be traced to it in an economically feasible way.

Indirect Costs: Can be described as the cost incurred for a period which certain output and turnover limits, tend to be unaffected by fluctuations in the levels of activity.

Variables Costs: Items of which tends to vary in direct proportion to changes in the volume of output of the cost center to which they relate.

Overheads: Refer to any cost which is not directly attributable to a cost unit. In other overhead Is the total of Indirect material cost, indirect labour cost and indirect expenses. Break Even Analysis: This is the term given to the study of interrelationship among costs. Volume and profits at variables levels of activity. At break even point, neither profit nor loss is made. Contribution: This is the difference between the sales and costs of product in a given period of time.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

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    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

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    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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