This Research Work in an attempt to the Analysis of Management and Performance in Financial Institutions using Cadbury Nigeria Plc. and Nestle Food Nigeria Plc as a case study. One area in which accountants in industry can make a valuable contribution to improve financial performance is by instituting and Interpreting business ratio analysis and applicable predictive model, this interpretation of ratios and predictive model may often suggest strength and weaknesses in the operations and financial position of the company, which may lead to depth or further investigation.

The method of data collected was by questionnaire on Ratio Analysis as a Predictive Tool for Business Performance, while secondary data from official reports of the organization was used for productivity and profitability. the questionnaire were distributed to the various departments to ensure that each section employee is given a chance of being sampled and the method of data analysis was used coding and decoding of questionnaire received from performance of staff, under different leadership and by the use of chi-square (X2) test.

This research work is being conducted in anticipation that it will put an end to the problem of management succession in organization, for better management function and improvement in the organization's productivity.

The evaluation of performance of business firm is an important aspect of financial management since this will help all those who have interest in the firm to make sound decision that would favour them. In the light of the above, it is highly recommended that the ALTMAN Z score could still be used in predicting how a firm would perform.

It is recommended that when applying a model caution should be maintained so as to be misguide, other underlying factors should' be considered before forming an opinion on the business performance such management policy.



1.1       Historical Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of Problem

1.3       Purpose of Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Research Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope and Limitation of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms



2.0       Introduction

2.1       Purpose and Consideration of Ratios and Ratio Analysis

2.2       Bases in Financial Statement

2.3       Distributional Characteristics of Financial Ratio

2.4       Parties Interested In Financial Report

2.5       Types of Financial Analysis

2.6       Types of Ratios

2.7       Efficiency Profitability Ratio

2.8       Financial Norms

2.9       Limitation of Financial Ratio Analysis

2.10    Historical Background of the Case Study 



3.0      Introduction 

3.1      Research Design 

3.2      Re-Statement of Research Questions

3.3      Re-Statement of Research Hypothesis 

3.4      Data Collection Method

3.4      Reliability Test 

3.5      Validity Test




4.0      Introduction 

4.1      Data Presentation

4.2      Data Analysis Techniques 

4.3      Analysis of Financial Ratios of Cadbury Nigeria Plc for Study Years 

4.4      Analysis of Financial Ratios of Nestle Food Nigeria Plc for the Study Years 

4.5      Testing Of Hypothesis  

4.5a    Testing Hypothesis I

4.5b    Testing Hypothesis II

4.6      Analysis of Score Result 



5.1      Summary of Findings 

5.2      Findings

5.3      Recommendation 

5.4      Conclusion






Any successive management is constantly estimating the performance of her comparing it with the company's historical figures, with its industry editors. And even with successful business from other industries. To complete a thorough' examination of company is effectiveness, however, one need to look at more than just easily attainable numbers like sales, Profits and total assets. One must be able to read between the lines of financial statements and make the seemingly inconsequential numbers accessible and comprehensible. This massive data overload could seem staggering. Likely, there are many well-tested ratios out there that make the task a bit less daunting. Comparative analysis and evaluation helps us to identify and quantify company's strengths and weakness, evaluate its financial position, and understand the risks one may be taking.

As with any other form of analysis, comparative evaluation techniques aren't definite and their results shouldn't be viewed as gospel. Many of the balance-sheet factors can play a role in the success or failure of a company. But, when in concert with various other business evaluation processes comparative management and performance are invaluable.

Mathematically, the word ratio implies the relationship of one Item to another otherwise; it can be defined as the relationships that exist between two or more variables whether dependent or independent. The coefficient that is obtained by using one variable to divide the other variables precisely tells us the positional situation Analysis therefore, is the systematic productions from both internal and external financial reports so as to summarize key relationships and results in order to appraise financial performance. Analysis and the evaluation as a practical means of monitoring and informing performance is greatly enhanced when

(a)    Analysis and evaluation are prepared regularly arid on a consistent basis so that trends can be highlighted and the charges investigated.

(b)   The analysis prepared for an individual firm can .be compared with other firm in the same industry. This process is greatly facilitated when the firm has ready access to comparative ratios prepared in a standardized manner.

(c)    It prepared showing the inter-locking and inter-dependent nature of factors, which contribute to financial success. (Terry, 2003).

Analysis in accounting is an important predictive tool of business performance and to be able to apply the model to any business concern. Answers should be provided to the following question which contribute the problems that the researcher attempts to solve.

So as to reduce to the barest minimum, the variability in investment risk become the more certain and uncertain the growth and profitability of an organization are, the less risky is an investment in such organization.


This research work examines the use of ratios as a predictive tool for management and performance in order to measure the growth and profitability if the company. But there is some dissatisfaction associated with the use of certain techniques. These include:

(1)   Analysis and evaluation of management used in financial statement can be misleading to user such Information if not carefully interpreted.

(2)   Financial information Analysis normally uses are adjusted for changes in the level of general prices, which can distort the analysis and interpretation.

(3)   It was historical (initial data) and the question arises as to whether such data can provide for a relevant basis for making predictions.

(4)   The act of analysis IS firstly, in selection of those ratios must appreciate under circumstance and subsequently in the Interpretation of the position which they reveal.


The major purpose of this study is to analyses extensively the various financial statement with regards to telling the direction of growth of an organization when a negative growth is noticed, adequate strategies are then formulated to put the organization on success path.

It is also the objective of the researcher to help any reader of this study in the following ways.

(a)     The general and specific knowledge about analysis of evaluation and the computation.

(b)    That through a careful study and monitoring of the analysis of an organization, one can predict the direction of growth and thereafter take decision to suit individual situation.

(c)    The research put the reader on the trial on logical reasoning, which leads to curiosity to know more about the topic and as much leading to further research which increase the total volume of human knowledge.


To what extent is comparison of performance between companies is difficult to accounting policies adopted Does financial statement calculated from accounting data subjected to different interpretation and manipulation adopted. Does financial statements comply with all statutory requirements and other regulations relevant to the constitution and activities of the enterprise Does adequate disclosure of all appropriate matter and the information contains in the financial statement is properly classified and presented.


Ho:   Comparison of performance between company’s management is not difficult because of different accounting policies adopted

Hi:    Comparison of performance between company’s management is difficult because of different accounting policies adopted.

Ho:   That financial evaluation calculated from accounting data are not subjected to different interpretation and manipulation

Hi:     That financial analysis calculated from accounting data are subjected to different interpretation and manipulation.


The aim of the study is to arouse interest in the use of ratio analysis as an effective instrument to measure business performance and to juxtapose the performance of each case of studies because ratios are to measure the achievement and failure of a business. It is also an effective instrument for prudent management of financial resource and for the growth of the business.

This study is also help in highlighting areas where organizations may have problem in area of financial management and encourage such organizations to adopt the rise of ratios to see its rises and efforts.

Finally it will help students, researchers and the companies choose a case of study in their course of study and go a long way in showing the financial problem to shareholders, financial analyst, Governments, Potential investors, Employees aid management as well.


This study shall cover analysis of management and performance of financial institution using Cadbury Nigeria Plc and Nestle Food Nigeria Plc as case Study.

Many things shall be considered in the study and the desirability of the project is not in doubt because of the inherent benefits, however, the accuracy of the work cannot be hundred percent because of the following limitation which would in one way or the  other affect the conclusions drawn upon which decision are based. So if the promise of a decision is faulty, that decision may be misleading. These limitations therefore are:

(a) Limited Resource: Because of limited resources at the researcher's disposal (human and financial) so far, in fact, it is a matter of convenience. The longer the sample of a research the more the accurate the result.

(b) Limited Time: Just like the resource put a limitation on the study so also the limited time

(c) Cost time and Cost: This research is going to cost the researcher in term of time, energy and money.

(d) Willingness to give out information: The information used in the study is limited only to those required to be published to companies according to relevant statute such as Company and Allied Matter Decree 1990 (CAMD '90). The policies regarding disclosure of some information regarded as classified vary from company to company. The researcher therefore crowns his conclusion from data made available and this has constitute a limited on the accuracy of the findings.


CURRENT RATIO: Compares total current assets to total current liabilities and it intended to indicate whether there are sufficient short-term to meet the short-term liabilities QUICK OR ACID TEST RATIO: The only different between this and current ratio is that quick or Acid test ratio does not include stock. GEARING RATIO: This indicates the degree of vulnerability, of earning available for ordinary shareholders. STOCK TURNOVER: This ratio measures the number of times stock is replaced during the period. DIVIDEND YIELD: Measures the real rate of return by comparing the dividend paid to the market price of a share. EARNING PER SHARE (EPS): This indicates how much of a company's profit can be attributed to each ordinary share in the company. DIVIDEND COVER: Compares the amount of profit earned per ordinary share with the amount of dividend paid. PRICE EARNING (PIE) RATIO: This relates the earnings per share to the market price of the share it is a useful indicator of how the stock market assesses the company. NET PROFIT MARGIN: This measures the efficiency with which the company controls its overheads. RETURNS ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED: The ration indicate the total profitability of the business (Ogijo, 2000).

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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