THE ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CULTURAL TOURISM TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

THE ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CULTURAL TOURISM TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT   

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION Background of the study: THE ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CULTURAL TOURISM TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Tourism is a rapidly growing phenomenon and has become one of the largest industries in the world. The impact of tourism varies extremely. On one hand, it plays an important and certainly positive role in the socioeconomic and political development in destination countries by, for instance, offering new employment opportunities. Also, in certain instances, it may contribute to a broader cultural and understanding by creating awareness, respecting the diversity of cultures and ways of life. On the other hand, it is a tool to create jobs (Idanre Ecotourism Masterplan). Tourism has been a major driver of socio-economic development in Western society; it is an alternative strategy for sustainability and diversification of economy for important policy of a good government. There are many western nations such as U.S.A, United Kingdom, Canada that have utilized the benefit of tourism to sustain their economy. However, over the years, tourism sector has been experiencing disdain in Nigeria. The Nigeria economy solely relies on crude oil with total neglect of other sectors such as tourism and agriculture which are the mainstay of a good economy. Over– concentration on oil sector has a great implication for the survival of Nigerian economy. The nonchalant attitude of government towards the development of the tourism sector has been major challenge facing the sector in Nigeria. Mass tourism in and from industrialized countries is a product of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Since then a number of interrelated developments in the world economy, such as overall economic growth and various other socio-economic changes, government policies, technological revolution, changes in production processes and new management practices have converted part of the industry from mass tourism to so-called “new tourism”. The latter connotes the idea of responsible, green, soft, alternative and sustainable tourism, and basically refers to the diversification of the tourism industry and its development in targeted, niche markets. Competition in the new tourism is increasingly based on diversification, market segmentation and diagonal integration (BGL Research and Intelligence). In recent times, tourism is one of the largest industries that has contributed to the socio-economic growth of many countries especially countries where tourism is the mainstay of her economy, World Tourism Organization (WTO, 1998; cited in Eja et al., 2012). Despite the fact that that industry is a vehicle for promoting cultural exchange that enhances international understanding and goodwill among the diverse peoples of the world, it is also a catalyst for enhancing many country destination employment opportunities, foreign exchange and infrastructural facilities (ESCAP, 2002; cited in Eja et al., 2012). The development of tourism as a critical sector of the economy has gradually assumed a centre stage in the economic agenda of most nations of the world. In the past few decades, international attention on tourism as a critical sector of the economy has greatly increased. This is in view of its capacity to quickly stimulate income growth, generate foreign exchange and contribute to domestic earnings of government through fees and taxes (Vanguard Newspaper, June 24, 2011). The interest in tourism by the Nigeria’s government started way back in the 1960s with the Obasanjo’s regime in 1976 establishing the Nigeria Tourism Board (NTB) now Nigeria Tourism Development Corporation (NTDC) via Decree No. 54 of 1976 reviewed to Decree No. 86 of 1991 and giving it a ‘preferred sector’ status respectively. Master Plan on tourism development in Nigeria started in 1982 with a tourism development policy first rolled out in 1990. To further consolidate the quest for quality service delivery in the tourism industry, the government created the Federal Ministry of Tourism and Culture to actualize the dream of catching up with the global train in tourism development (Munzali, 2011). Tourism has become a major source of economic diversification for many countries, underpinning the service sector and forging effective backward and forward linkages with the rest of the economy, allowing new employment and income earning opportunities. Although the developed countries account for a higher proportion of global tourism, many developing countries are beginning to take advantage of the huge opportunities offered by tourism. However, only developing countries with effective natural and man-made tourism supporting and enhancing infrastructure have been able to develop their tourism sector and seize the attendant advantages. The need for economic diversification in most developing countries is overwhelming because of their defining mono-cultural economic characteristics where only one or two commodities dominate exports and provide the bulk of foreign exchange from which these countries could reconcile their internal and external balances. Tourism is one concept that may not really invoke the desired passion and attraction among Nigerians. The reason for this could be the high level of poverty prevalent in a country where the people live from hand to mouth and have little left for other secondary activities like tourism. However, tourism is not an issue that is limited to Nigeria but is a language of the international community where people save money in order to visit places of attractions to fulfill their dreams (Jiboku and Jiboku, 2010). The important roles of the tourism sector as the main instrument in socio-economic development of any nation cannot be overemphasized. Although some of the tourist centres in Nigeria are not well developed to promote socio-economic development, the only way to realize the important roles of tourism is through a well developed, packaged and promoted tourist attraction (Tunde, 2012). The Nigerian Government is increasingly recognizing the need to develop this industry especially now that the country is trying to diversify her economy. The present government has called for the promotion and exploitation of other sectors that could contribute to economic development and tourism has been recognized as a high profile among them. Apart from petroleum and agriculture, tourism is another sector that could help in turning the Nigerian economy around (Dalat, 2010). Nigeria is a country richly endowed with a wide range of natural and cultural resources relative to other nations in Africa and on global level most of which are largely untapped. These resources fall into protected ecosystems (game reserves and recreational parks), protected landscapes or natural sceneries, cultural sites, coastline, traditional festivals and historic relics and monuments (Ekechukwu, 1990; Okoli, 2001 cited in Enemou et al., 2012).

Statement of the problem

Undoubtedly, tourism and the hospitality industry can be said to be a basic revenue generator for the operators in the business and the country in which they operate. Nigeria as a country is no exception. Although the tourism industry in Nigeria cannot be said to be fully developed, it is still in its developing stage. Meanwhile, since its independence in 1960, Nigeria as a country has been dependent on the oil sector. So, the tourism sector has been neglected, until recently when the new democratic government identified tourism as a strategic venture that can boost the economy of Nigeria as a country (Nigeria hospitality, 2010; cited in Ogbonnikan, 2012). It is against this backdrop that this study explores management of tourism for socio economic-development in Nigeria.

Objectives of the study: THE ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CULTURAL TOURISM TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

1.      To ascertain the significance of cultural tourism to sustainable development.1.4   Research question 1.      How significant is cultural tourism to sustainable development?1.5   Research hypothesisHo: Cultural tourism has no significant impact on sustainable development.Hi: Cultural tourism has significant impact on sustainable development.1.6   Significance of the study: THE ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CULTURAL TOURISM TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Nigeria is one such country seeking to diversify its economy away from crude oil production to maximize employment and income generating opportunities. Nigeria has huge tourism potentials, especially given its natural and diversified landscapes but lacks effective and tourism supporting and enhancing infrastructure. While tourism affords huge employment and income generating opportunities, its impact on bio-physical environment is well acknowledged hence the emphasis on sustainable tourism (Ayeni and Ebohoh, 2012). 1.7   Scope/Limitations of the study: THE ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CULTURAL TOURISM TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT This study on the assessment of the significance of cultural tourism to sustainable development will cover various approaches to the study and its impact on the area of study. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.1.8   Definition of termsCultural Tourism: Is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life.         Development:The act of developing or the state of being developed         Sustainable Development: Is development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.(project topics   final year project topics)

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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