COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE UTERINE MENSTRUAL CYCLE AND THE HEMATOLOGICAL INDICES OF STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE UTERINE MENSTRUAL CYCLE AND THE HEMATOLOGICAL INDICES OF STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN

ABSTRACT

The menstrual cycle is affected by so many various factors e.g. stress and changes in diet and iron. Several other studies showed no significant changes in Hemoglobin Concentration and RBC Count during various phases of the menstrual cycle, Twenty students with a normal menstrual cycle were used as the study subject. The three-phase of the uterine cycle was studied and the hematologic indices analyzed. We tried to make a comparative analysis on Hemoglobin and Red Blood Cell Count which showed no significant increase from Menstrual Phase (MP) to Secretory Phase (SP), which is in agreement with the earlier reports. Hemoglobin concentration may increase from the menstrual phase to the secretory phase due to an increase in erythropoiesis to compensate for the blood loss during menses. There was a pronounced tendency towards an increase in Hb and RBC Count from the early menstrual phase until the post-ovulatory period, with a subsequent decrease towards the end of the cycle. From the analysis, we deduced that the menstrual cycle had no deleterious effect on the hematologic indices.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The menstrual cycle is the cycle of natural changes that occurs in the uterus and ovary as an essential part of making sexual reproduction possible (Lentzet al., 2012). Its timing is governed by endogenous (internal) biological cycles. The menstrual cycle is essential for the production of eggs, and for the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy (Lentz et al., 2012).  The cycle occurs only in fertile female humans and other female primates. In human females, the menstrual cycle occurs repeatedly between the ages of menarch, when cycling begins, until menopause, when it ends.

In humans, the length of a menstrual cycle varies greatly among women (ranging from 21 to 35 days), with 28 days designated as the average length (AHYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menstrual_cycle" \l "cite_note-Widmaier-3"nderson et al., 2003). Each cycle can be divided into three phases based on events in the ovary (ovarian cycle) or in the uterus (uterine cycle) (Anderson et al., 2003). The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase, ovulation and luteal phase whereas the uterine cycle is divided into menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase. Both cycles are controlled by the endocrine system and the normal hormonal changes that occur can be interfered with using hormonal contraception to prevent reproduction (Klumpetet al., 2013).

By convention, the length of an individual menstrual cycle in days is counted starting with the first day of menstrual bleeding. Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, discharges of blood (menses) slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens. Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die). Approximately mid-cycle, 24–36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone(LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum or egg in an event called ovulation. After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy. If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will involute, causing sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and estrogen. The hormone drop causes the uterus to shed its lining and egg in a process termed menstruation (Klumpetet al., 2013).

The menstrual cycle is characterized by cyclical fluctuations in the levels of FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone The hormones are known to have an effect on oxygen carrying capacity, immune response, bleeding and also changes in serum electrolyte which may be responsible for variable physical, psychological symptoms and autonomic changes. It is suggested that stressful situations during ovulatory periods and menstruation may cause increased 17-hydroxy corticosterone levels with resulting eosinopenia (Feuring M et al., 2002). Platelet function is periodically altered during the ovarian cycle due to the influence of progesterone and estrogen on Von Willebrand factor concentrations (Sioba´net al., 2004). Ovarian hormones influence almost all the systems of the body. 

They are known to alter the immune system like depression of the suppressor T cell activity Human & animal studies suggest that there is a change in the distribution of immune cells during different phases of menstrual cycle (Pehlivanogluet al., 2001). 5–20% of women reporting severe dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation) which may be associated with reproductive morbidities like infection (Sioba´net al., 2004), thus estimation of leucocyte count is an important tool. Females have more asthma throughout the reproductive years. Female sex steroids are pro-inflammatory and will increase the susceptibility to atopy(Sioba´net al., 2004).

In developing countries, abnormal uterine bleeding appears to affect about 5–15% of women of reproductive age. It is a major cause of gynecological morbidity, affecting up to one in five women some point during their reproductive life span Reproductive-aged women of about 9-14% have blood loss that exceeds 80 ml (Rajneeet al., 2010) and prolonged and excessive bleeding may provoke or exacerbate anaemia and in a certain percentage of cases, may eventually be life threatening if left untreated, thus there arises a need to estimate Haemoglobin, Red Blood Cell count and ESR during the menstrual cycle. The lack of awareness about the potential importance of reducing menstrual flow when women are anaemic and lack of knowledge among women about treatment alternatives is of some concern. The maintenance of different blood corpuscles at normal levels during the menstrual cycle is necessary. Therefore, in the present study, haematological modulation in the different phases of menstrual cycle was studied. (Silverthornet al., 2013 and Sherwood et al., 2013).

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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