This study investigates parenting styles and self concept. It was with the view of seeing how they influence the emotional adjustment of adolescents in Nigeria. It’s reference is particularly to senior and junior secondary school in Ikpoba Okha local government area of Edo state. The research question was drawn for three lasting elated literature, in different parenting styles, self-concept and emotional adjustment, were reviewed. The respondents were senior and junior secondary school students. The sample and sampling techniques was used in six secondary school. One hundred and eighty boys and girls responded to the questionnaires on the instrument for investigation. The study questionnaire was on parenting styles scale, self-concept scale and emotional adjustment scale. Pilot study of the questionnaire was carried out to ascertain the content, the percentage of analyzing the result were used to show the content, the percentage of analyzing the result were used to show the emotional adjustment and the influence parenting styles has on the self-concept of the adolescent. The study therefore recommend that parents should ensure that, the parenting style used on adolescent should be such that will help develop the positive emotional adjustment and the school counselor to initiate programme that will help adolescent have positive self-concept.

                      TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page………………..i




Table of content……...…v


Background of the study

Statement of the problem

Purpose of study

Scope of study

Significance of the study

Definition of terms


Literature review


Research Methodology

Research design


Data Analysis










    Adolescent is a developmental period when a lot of change takes place, these changes could be physical, mental and social. Also adolescent is usually a time of excitement and of troubles and can thus be a confusing time. It is true that adolescents have different self-esteem, and the way they react to situation and circumstances surrounding them. While some are very receptive and others very aggressive and unfriendly.

    It has been noticed that some of these adolescents are maladjusted in behaviour and in their relationship with fellow adolescent and other members of the society. Some of these adolescent who have problem with their self-concepts are not able to adjust or cope emotionally. It is in recognition of this, that the national policy of education stated. In view of the apparent ignorance of many young people, about career prospects and in view of personality, maladjustment among school children, career offices and counselors should be appointed in post primary institution. As one of the function of guidance and counselling, in assisting maladjusted students.

    The training given to a child, to a large extent determine his or her self-concept. The parenting styles of individual also determine how the child will adjust to the society emotionally. There are different families. There is the single parent homes, the two parents homes and the multiple parents homes which is generally known as polygamy. In these homes you find different styles of parenting being used. These parenting style have a way of affecting the self-concept of individual adolescents and their emotional adjustment in the society.

    The parenting styles, goes a long way in determining how an individual sees his or herself, perception concerning his or her physical, social and psychological aspiration and emotional adjustment in the society in which he or she lives. It is therefore important to study the different parenting styles and ascertain how they determine the self-concept of the individual adolescent. It is also necessary to look at the way, this will help the individual to adjust emotionally to the society.


    According to Cleaner Casiellino, Michinery and Terry Vilarcial [1995] parenting is the term summarizing set of behaviors involved across life, in the reactions among organisms that are usually the same and typically members of different but cohorts. Parenting interaction provide resources across the generational groups and functions in regard to domains individual survival reproduction, nature and socialization, this parenting is a complex process involving much more than a mother or father providing food and succor to an infant or child. Parenting involves bio-directional relationship between members of two or more generation and can extend through all major parts of the respective life spans of these groups which may engage all institution within a culture including education, economic, political and designed settings which the group left behind [Ford and Leaner Lager] “parenting is both a biological and social process.

    According to Bornstain [1995], the key functions of a child’s family are to raise the young person in a healthy as manner as possible. The parents role is to provide the child with safe, secure, nurturing, loving as well support the child’s environment, as one that allows the offspring to have a happy and healthy youth life. This sort of experience allows the youth to develop in knowledge, value, attitude and behaviour necessary to become an adult, making a productive contribution to self, family community and the larger society.

    What a parent does to fulfill these “duties” or roles is termed parenting in other words, parenting is a term summarizes behaviour of a person, usually mother or father in the process of raising a child given to the family.


    According to Darling [1999] Development psychologists have interest in the way parent’s influences social and instrumental competence. It has also been said that parenting is the most difficult job, and the most important responsibility one will have in life.

    According to Kathic [1999] on clear guidelines above, the way of parenting has been based on, upbringing of children in appropriate building of positive self-concept without having emotional problems.

    According to Darling [1999] parenting is a difficult task that include a lot of specific behaviour that work individually and collectively to influence adolescent life.

    According to Fry [2004], many parents believe that the best way to bring up and rear a child especially the adolescent is by being oppressive, a commander, an authoritarian and autocratic. These parents believe that the adolescent should carry out all instructions as commanded, yet another set believe that they should be permissive or negligent as parents could such parenting style result in maladjustment? Nigerian adolescent with low self-concept and emotional problem, parents who are authoritative in their parenting styles have children who are more socially, emotionally and instrumentally competent than others who are non-authoritative.

    According to Baumrind [1991], the authoritarian families have adolescent who perform well in school, but involved in problem behaviour, self-esteem and high level of depression.

    According to Schwarz [1999] and Darling [1999], various researchers have low self esteem and low self-concept result from authoritarian family, the reluctant once perform poorly in school, and low level of depression. Which of these styles is known to have positive emotional developments? Could this be equally true of the respondents in this study? Or can the four parenting styles be merged to eliminate maladjustment in adolescent? Can two or three parenting styles be adopted for a balance adolescent life?   

    According to National Policy on Education [1998], one of the aims and objectives of the national policy on education, which is also linked to the training of the mind and the understanding of the world. It states also that, it is promotion of the physical and psychological development of all Nigerian children.


The purpose of this research is:

1a.     Parenting style of indulgent

2.    Authoritarian parents

3.    Authoritative parents and

4.    Uninvolved parents [reluctant]

All this will be done through study materials and field work with questionnaire.

2.     How parenting styles affect the self-concept of the adolescent

3.    And how parenting style and self-concept affect the emotional     adjustment of the adolescent.


    To find out the effects of parenting styles and self-concept on emotional adjustment of the adolescent, the study raised the following research questions:

1.    Do parenting style affect the emotional adjustment of the adolescent?

2.    Does self-concept affect the emotional adjustment of the adolescent?

3.    Does self esteem among adolescent create problems of fornication, smoking, cultism and other vices?   SCOPE OF STUDY

    The research study will be limited in scope to 10 [ten] randomly selected secondary school in the Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area.


    This study analyses adolescent development between parental styles and self-concept on the emotional adjustment of the adolescent. This study therefore, will add to the knowledge of parenting styles and self-concept.

    This work will also benefit those who wish to carryout data examination on parenting styles, self-concept and emotional life of the adolescent. It will also help parents especially to know the impact they have on their children so as to help develop programmes that will help build their relationship with their adolescents.

    The study will also help professional like psychologist and educationist to know that child rearing is built on social support, behaviour molding and the adolescent emotions. And also, the process of self-development in adolescent to a large extent is tailored towards helping parents and counselors to know the different parenting styles that is positive and negative to the adolescent.


    For a clear understanding of the concepts used in this study some terms are defined as follows:

1.    PARENTING STYLE: This is the different styles of up bringing of children. Here we have

1.    Indulgent parents.

2.    Authoritarian

3.    Authoritative and

4.    Uninvolved [reluctant] parents.

2.    SELF-CONCEPT: It is a word, which qualifies an individual to self-regards.

3.    PARENTAL ATTITUDE: This is the parental feeding towards the adolescent..

4.    INDULGENT PARENTS: These are the parents who feel less concern about their children’s up bringing

5.    AUTHORITARIAN PARENTS: They are the parents who believes in oppressing their children with directive options and not responsive.

6.    AUTHORITATIVE PARENTS: They are responsive and they do not oppress their children directive options.

7.    UNINVOLVED PARENTS OR RELUCTANT PARENTS: They are not responsive, neither are they helpful.



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