This study was motivated by the observations of the writers on the state of this harmony caused by constraints and state of disobedience to norms, situation, and constituted authorities coupled with the interplay of these variables with academic performance of students in secondary schools. The researchers used correlational method to examine the relationship between boredom and deviant behaviour on academic performances of senior secondary school students in Sokoto Metropolis. Purposive sampling method was used to select five (5) out of twenty-three (23) senior secondary schools while Proportionate and random sampling methods was used to choose 327 students out of the population of 2078 SS 1 secondary school students. Three instruments were used after ascertaining their, validity and reliability indices. Three research hypotheses were formulated and tested using Pearson moment correlation and regression analysis. The findings show that among the three variables deviant behaviour seems to relate more positively with academic performance, implying that it affects academic performance more than boredom. Some of the recommendations offered are called on collaborative efforts between school and parents to lessen the workload and series of examinations on senior secondary school students. Counsellors should assist with study skills and behaviour management strategies to help solve issues related to boredom, deviancy and poor performance among students


Boredom is a state of dissatisfaction resulting from a combination of an uninteresting environment and attention constraint (Mikulas and Vodanovich 1993; Todman 2003). Another definition refers to boredom as a state of under-stimulation, under arousal, lack of momentum, and lack of psychological involvement that is associated with dissatisfaction in the task situation (Brisset and Snow, 1993). Boredom may influence the student’s behavior and disposition in the classroom. Some studies suggest that bored high school students are more apt to be disruptive (McGiboney and Carter, 1988).Research by Fallism and Opotow (2003)found that a boring school experience leads some students to cut classes also Dow(2007) indicated that boredom exacerbates students' risk of dropping out of high school. A study conducted by Rubin, (2007) using an urban school suggests that some students fail at their attempts to be good students and become academically disengaged because they reject that frequent boring and meaningless classroom activities at their school. Quite often senior secondary school students are also bored during their leisure time as well as at school. Boredom has both situational and individual determinants (external and internal causes). Boredom experienced as a result of external circumstances is considered situational dependent while boredom resulting from the individual determinants can be viewed as a personality characteristic that varies in degree across individuals ( Todman, 2007). It is, therefore, true that several factors in Nigerian society (Sokoto inclusive) can predispose senior secondary school students to boredom, these include the family, community, school, declining standard of living, poverty, and socio-cultural practices. In this context, boredom is operationalized as an individual’s susceptibility to experiencing tiredness, dislike, and disengagement from activities while boredom proneness is conceptualized as the actual subjective experience of boredom. There are established correlations between boredom and numerous negative outcomes (Blaszczynski, McConaghy and Frankova 1990; Caldwell and Smith, 2006; Farmer and Sundberg, 1986). These numerous negative outcomes include substances abuse (Paulson, Coombs and Ricardson 1990), pathological gambling ( Blascczynski et al 1990), decreased academic achievement and increased likelihood of dropping out of school (Caldwell and Smith, 2006), positively with indexes of depression and anxiety (Gordon, Wilkinson, McGown and Jovanoska 1997), as well as hopelessness and loneliness (Farmer and Sundberg, 1986). Additionally, boredom proneness is linked to behaviors such as increased aggression and hostility (Rupp and Vodanovich,1997), substance use (Paulson et al, 1990), alcohol dependence (Todman 2003), and susceptibility to heroin use (Serman, Zinser, Sideroff and Baker 1989, Todman 2003). Other negatives include 4 personality traits such as impulsivity (Watt and Vodanovich, 1990), and self-reflectivity (Seib and Vodanovich, 1998). It, therefore, means that boredom has associated social, emotional, and psychological repercussions judging from the range of negative behaviors. Senior secondary school age is a time of change. The students of secondary schools are in their adolescent stage of life. Karvonen (1997) defines adolescence as a generationally patterned stage of life that is characterized by a gradual transition from childhood dependency to the autonomy typical of adult roles. Adolescence comprises ages (12 to 22 years), this is a critical and vulnerable stage of human development, during which males and females experience different biological, social, and cognitive changes. It is a period of human life characterized by the crisis, confusion, and youthful exuberance. Most senior secondary school students fall within this age group as such they are likely to exhibit deviant behaviors as a part of normal developmental behavior. These predispositions (deviancy) might become worse on the senior secondary school students experiencing boredom. Deviance in this context refers to behavior that is sharply different from customary, traditional, or generally accepted standards. It simply means any behavior that is different or unacceptable by convention. It is also regarded as repelling and offensive from the perspective of social operation. By inference, adolescents are more prone to rebellious attitudes due to the characteristic feature of their developmental stage, or when they have too much work to be done, or when they encounter boredom. Most senior secondary level students are adolescents in pursuit of education and are subjected to activities oriented toward working hard to pass well. However, the level of academic performance is affected by several factors that may limit their attainments in education. Academic performance is defined as a student’s progress, understood as the level of learning comprehension and consolidation of the school curriculum (Syngollitou 1997). In the context of this study, it is used to refer to the assessment made on student’s capacities as displayed in test or exam results. Academic performance is influenced by many psychological, family, school, and social factors. The most prominent school factors are general school climate, comprehensive curriculum plans, school-wide assessments, specific school-based programs, social skills interventions, school-based social services, teacher’s pedagogical skills and teacher’s beliefs/attitudes, study habits, effective use of time and utilization of leisure time. Senior secondary school students that are not well engaged in school work may be involved in deviancy and are not likely to perform well academically. 5 Since senior secondary school students are given tasks that they haven’t flair for, it, therefore, make them prone to boredom, deviant behavior, and failure.

Statement of the problem

It is a common phenomenon that society should be concern about the plight of its members, most families, schools, parents, and teachers are worried and often complain about the secondary school-going age group(12-20) years, because they engage in deviant behavior due to many factors among which is boredom. More so senior secondary school level of education is the time used to train and prepare students for school certificate examinations which involve a lot of tasks, often students express deviant behavior in a bid to avoid boredom associated with the rigors of academics and examinations. In some cases boredom has been linked to alcohol and substance abuse in the bid to study hard, this further predispose the senior secondary school students to unhealthy deviant behavior and may lead to poor performances and failure in internal and external exams with its attendant consequences on the students and society at large. Those who could not pass to graduate from secondary school are likely not to further their education and also be unemployed; this may lead them to engage in deviancy acts such as drug addiction, alcoholism, hooliganism, political thuggery and other vices that need to be addressed. In line with all these the researchers seek to find out how boredom relates with deviancy among senior secondary school students, and how they interfere with their academic pursuits. This study is therefore set out to find out the relationship between boredom and deviant behavior on academic performance among secondary school students in the Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria.

Research Questions

Research questions raised which guided the study are as follows:

1. Is there any relationship between boredom and academic performance among senior secondary school students in the Sokoto metropolis?

2. Is there any relationship between boredom and deviant behaviors among senior secondary school students in the Sokoto metropolis?

3. Is there any relationship between deviant behaviors and academic performance among senior secondary school students in the Sokoto metropolis?

4. Which of the two independent variables is more related to academic performance?

Objectives of the study

The following objectives were formulated for the study. They were geared to:

1. Determine the relationship between boredom and academic performance.

2. Find out if there is a relationship between boredom and deviant behavior.

3. Determine if there is a relationship between deviant behavior and academic performance.

4. Which of the two independent variables is more related to academic performance?

Research hypotheses

For the purpose of this research work, the following hypotheses were formulated and tested:

1. There is no significant relationship between boredom and academic performance of a senior secondary school student in the Sokoto metropolis.

2. There is no significant relationship between boredom and deviant behavior of senior secondary school students in the Sokoto state.

3. There is no significant relationship between deviant behavior and academic performance of senior secondary school students in the Sokoto metropolis. 4. Which of the two independent variables is more related to academic performance?

Significance of the Study

A study of this concern may help society at large to understand the problem of boredom as it relates to deviancy among senior secondary school students. The findings from this study would be of great benefit to the counselor, teachers, parents, and the society in general, to understanding and tackling senior secondary school student behavior as it affects academic performance. For the counselor, it would add to the bank of information especially in the area of how boredom and deviant behavior affects academic performance and therefore providing/devising solution as would be needed. The teacher's information provided by this research may improve their effort to address student needs and educational goals (especially in averting boredom and making the class interesting) as well as assist teachers in their guidance role. For the parents, the information would improve their understanding and thus support in advocating for their child’s academic, career, and personal development. It will create community awareness on the effect of boredom and deviance as it affects academic performance, therefore educating the community on the needs of the secondary school age group. For the students, knowledge of this work will 7 forearm them on how boredom and deviance could affect their academic performance and there to adopt strategies to avoid these phenomena to enhance good academic performance. It is the belief of the researchers that the findings of this study will contribute to the knowledge and serve as empirical findings and workable recommendations to overcome issues related to boredom, deviance, and poor academic performance and enhance proper adjustment and better academic performance.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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