DOMESTIC OUTCOMES OF NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY 1999-2007 ABSTRACT: Godfatherism and political violence has become the dominant feature characterizing contemporary politics in Nigeria. Their role in the political system has impacted negatively on the politics of the country, and constitutes a potential threat to the country’s nascent democracy, development and security. Literature has highlighted the implications of godfatherism and political violence such as loss of life and properties, corruption, embezzlement of public funds, falsification of election results, stagnant development and political insecurity. However, this study examined the linkage between godfatherism and political violence and its implication on security and development in Anambra state, Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative and qualitative research techniques. The quantitative method involved the use of closed and open-ended questionnaire, while the qualitative method employed the use of unstructured interview. A total number of 120 questionnaires were administered out of which only 105 were returned. The study adopted purposive sampling technique to select respondents in the study area which yielded four (4) communities; Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi and Ozubulu. Frequency distribution tables and simple percentage method were used to analyze the quantitative data, while explanatory research technique was utilized for the qualitative data.The findings of the study indicated that there is a linkage between godfatherism and political violence as a result of partisan interest of these political godfathers which leads to interference within the political process in Anambra state. Furthermore, the study revealed that godfatherism and political violence have undermined the rule of law and due process which are vital for democratic sustenance in Anambra state and Nigeria in general. The implication is that there is lack of trust in the electoral process, misappropriation of public funds by those in government and inability to deliver the dividends of democracy to the citizens. The findings also revealed that the implications of political violence on security and development are characterized by loss of lives and properties, illegal arms proliferation, threats to state institutions and stagnant development of the state.In conclusion, there is a need for a more proactive approach by various political stakeholders in addressing the challenges of godfatherism and political violence in Anambra state. Policy options such as; promotion of free and fair elections, promotion of non-violent activities, litigation against indicted political godfathers, sensitization of political stakeholders, good governance practice, eradication of bribery and corruption, will go a long way in addressing the challenge of godfatherism and political violence in Anambra state and Nigeria as a whole.TABLE OF CONTENTTitle Page iCertification iiDedication iiiAcknowledgement ivTable of Content vList of Tables viiiList of Figures ixAbstract xCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.0 Background of the Study 1 1.1 Statement of Problem 61.2 Research Question 81.3 Research Objective 91.4 Significance of Study 91.5 Scope of the Study 101.6 Study Area 111.7 Operational Definition of Terms 13CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 Introduction 172.1 Conceptual Discourse 172.1.1 Concept of Godfatherism 172.1.2 Concept of Political Violence 212.1.3 Concept of Democracy 232.2 Review of Related Literature 292.2.1 The Evolution of Godfatherism in Nigeria’s Political System 292.2.2 Godfatherism, Political Violence and Democracy in Nigeria 342.2.3 The Implications of Political Violence on Security and Development in Nigeria382.3 Theoretical Framework 44CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.0 Introduction 483.1 Research Design 483.2 Study Population 493.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure 493.4 Data Source 503.5 Data Collection Procedure 503.5 Methods of Data Analysis 523.7 Limitations of the methodology 53CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND INTERPRETATION4.0 Introduction 544.1 Data Analysis and Interpretation 544.2 Summary of Findings and Discussion 64CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.0 Introduction 695.1 Summary 695.2 Conclusion 725.3 Policy Recommendations 735.4 Suggestion for further study 76REFERENCES 77APPENDIX I 89APPENDIX II 96LIST OF TABLESTable 3.1 Socio-Demographic Data of the RespondentsTable 4.1 Perception on the Linkage between godfatherism and political violenceTable 4.2 Perception of the effects of godfatherism and political violence on the democratic process in Anambra stateTable 4.3 Perception of the implications of political violence on security and development in Anambra stateTable 4.4 Perception of suggested policy options that will address the challenge of godfatherism and political violence in Anambra state CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYGodfatherism has become an institutionalized phenomenon in contemporary politics in Nigeria which has far reaching implications for the political system. Before it was adopted in political circles, godfatherism was formerly a religious term which presupposes placing a young Christian under the tutelage of an older and more proven Christian (Obaji, 2006). It is important to emphasis the fact that godfatherism is not alien to traditional African societies given the role played by elders. Traditionally, parents and elders are revered because they are custodians of custom and traditions coupled with their experience (Lawal, 2010). In Christendom, elders are viewed as knowledgeable individuals who are proven in the service of God and humanity, thus qualifying for the title of a godfather. For instance among the Yoruba of south-western Nigeria, a godfather could aptly be referred to as ‘baba nigbejo’, that is, someone who is always available and willing to come to one’s rescue. Among the Hausa, the ‘maigida’ landlord or head of a household is a godfather in his own right while the phenomenon is also an attribute of traditional Igbo society as reflected in the relationship between master and servant ‘nnam-ukwu and the phrase nma ma du’-man knows man (Albert, 2005 cited in Familusi, 2012). Within the traditional African socio-political system, traditional godfathers are regarded as mentors, role models and leaders par excellence. However the term has assumed a political coloration as attention is no longer seriously focused on Christian or traditional godfathers but political godfathers. In Nigerian politics, godfatherism depicts a benevolent father who has all it takes to promote a successful political career for a candidate, while expecting tangible and intangible rewards from the recipient. In this light, politics in the Nigerian society is seen more as a means of attaining wealth rather than as a process of service and the existence of godfatherism is very real. Within the political system, Godfatherism is regarded as an ideology which is constructed on the belief that certain individuals possess considerable means to unilaterally determine who gets party ticket to run for an election and who wins electoral contest (Gambo, 2006). In the same vein, Adeoye (2009) states that godfatherism in its simple form is a term used to describe the relationship between a godfather and godson. Thus, a godfather is someone who has built unimaginable respect and followers (voters) in the community and possesses a well organised political platform and general acceptance from the electorate that could secure victory for candidates of his choice. The view of Ayoade (2008) is that the term godfather is often used interchangeably with other terms such as mentor, financier, and benefactor among others. Therefore, political godfathers are regarded as rich men whose contributions to campaign funds of some candidates have helped them to win elections (Albert, 2005).Godfatherism in politics is thus, regarded as a kind of political behavior in which economically, politically, and socially well-placed individuals in a society use their power and their connections to influence political and economic processes. This arrangement can be good or bad depending on intentions of the godfather. The term is simply a new way of describing political patronage and by extension, paternalism. In Nigeria, the godfather phenomenon has played historical roles and has to a large extent, shaped and refocused the practice of politics and governance. According to Nnamani (2003), Nigerians see the godfather as a looming and imperious guardian figure that provides a lifeline and direction for his godson. The godson is perceived to live a life of total submission and subservience, and to protect the interest of the godfather.The phenomenon of political godfather in Nigeria can be traced to the first republic when the foremost nationalists of the country like Zik, Awo, and Tafawa-Balewa influenced and controlled political activities in Nigeria (Alabi and Sakariyau, 2013). These were the leaders of the three major political parties; Northern People’s Congress (NPC), Action Group (AG) and National Congress of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC), who carefully and meticulously cultivated godsons that they were convinced would advance the well being of the citizens. According to Uzoamaka (2010) cited in Majekodunmi and Olanrewaju (2013), Ahmadu Bello of NPC, Nnamdi Azikiwe of the NCNC and Obafemi Awolowo of the AG were motivated not to use godsons as surrogates to promote parochial interests, but to promote the developmental aspirations of the people. Unlike the present crop of political godfathers, the first generation godfathers were essentially benevolent and progressive because they did not abuse their status as godfathers by imposing frivolous demands on their godsons as is the case today. In a relative sense, the first republic political godfathers were drawn by community sense of interest in seeking to influence the electorates to vote for some candidates of their choice. It was enough satisfaction for them that they wielded tremendous influence in the society and this inevitably generated a groundswell of goodwill and reverence for them as their views on political issues were scarcely contested in their respective regions of the country. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the interest of the present crop of political godfathers in Nigeria differs substantively from the godfathers of old in the Christian religion. In the words of Ogbonnwan, "the true meaning of the word godfather has been twisted" (Ogbonnwan, 2004). He stated further that, godfatherism today refers to a relationship with subordinates, which no longer signify the caring, loving and kindness characteristic of the old. Rather, the term has been bastardized and now connotes the boss of a political party working against the interest of the people. Corroborating Ogbonnwam's assertion, Anakwenze (2004) describes the situation thus "the present characteristic posture of godfatherism in Nigeria today differs substantively from the godfathers of the Christian faith". The main difference between the godfather of today and the godfather of the Christian faith is that the later provide counseling and guidance to his godson to become a morally responsible individual in society, whereas the former sees himself as the beneficiary and gives favour only when he feels that it advances his own interest. This implicit personalized virtue of the political godfather now dominates the relationship between a godfather and godson in Nigeria. It is in this sense that Nnamani, the former Governor of Enugu State, defines godfather simply as "a self-seeking individual whose goal is to use the government for his own purposes,” (Nnamani, 2003). Anakwenze (2004) also opines that:“The present day godfathers lack the basic understanding of the fundamental concept of government. However, they believe that government is there to be hijacked to serve personal political interest and to enrich them”.This is now the case as present day godfathers have turned politics into a money-making business under which elections are rigged with a view to forcing pre-determined candidates into office. The office-holders are in turn subjected to all forms of indecent manipulations by their mentors. The godfathers in Nigeria see their support to their godsons as an economic investment that must yield superlative dividends by all means. Anambra State in particular, is one of the federating units in Nigeria that is popularly known for godfather politics. Between 1999 and 2003, the fight was between Emeka Offor (Godfather) and the Governor of the State Chinwoke Mbadinuju (godson), who refused to dance to the tune of the godfather, subsequently led to Mbadinuju losing the gubernatorial ticket for Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) and his inability to contest elections in 2003. The dust raised by the actions of these political bigwigs was yet to settle when two other actors emerged, Chris Uba and Chris Ngige. Uba was the godfather responsible for the installation of Ngige. Ngige pledged his loyalty to Uba and assured him of cooperation. Based on this Uba bankrolled the gubernatorial election to the tune of three billion naira. After the election, Ngige refused to pay back his godfather the necessary commission and patronage. And what supposed to be a cold war was made public with the abduction of Ngige and his purported resignation (Chukwuemeka et al, 2013). Since then, peace has eluded the State until Ngige was defeated at the election petition tribunal for rigging the gubernatorial polls by the All Progressive Grand Alliance (APGA) candidate Mr. Peter Obi. Since 1999, when Nigeria regained her legitimate political power from military administrators under the auspices of General Abdulsalam, many cases of political violence from North and South poles of the country have become the order of the day. The inherent effect of political godfatherism is political violence which often results in massive destruction of lives and properties. An instance of such occurred during the election and post election period in April 2011 in Nigeria where there were many cases of destructions of lives and properties as a result of the instructions given by the godfathers to their supporters in various states of the federation with the predominant use of young citizens as political thugs, the proliferation of arms and ammunitions, the disenfranchisement of citizens to exercise their political right. Issues of politicized employment in the states, the promotion of high level of poverty, disrespect of the rule of law, production of unresponsive leadership, and manipulation of public policies are the resultant effects of godfatherism on the state in the form of structural or physical violence. There is hardly any state devoid of the existence and influence of godfathers but such influence varies in instances such as Saraki vs. Lawal in Kwara State, Offor vs. Mbadimunju (1999–2003), Uba vs. Ngige (2003–2006), in Anambra State, Kachalla vs. Alimodu Sherif in Borno State (2002–2003) and in the second half of the fourth republic Ladoja vs. Adedibu in Oyo State. Thus, godfatherism is a threat to Nigeria’s nascent democracy, therefore making it imperative to explore the ugly phenomenon of godfatherism and its link to political violence. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Several studies have been conducted on godfatherism and political violence in Nigeria (Albert, 2005; Omotola, 2007; Lawal, 2010; Animasawun 2013; Majekodunmi and Olanrewaju, 2013). These scholars have offered diverse perspectives on the relationship between godfatherism and political violence while highlighting the role that godfathers have played on the democratic process in Nigeria. Political godfather, violence and governance are related but contradictory phenomenon in which a lot of intellectual energy has been directed towards understanding their fundamental nature, character, causes and effects or impact on Nigerian democracy. However, this study takes an in depth approach to the analysis of the linkage and dynamics of godfather politics and political violence, with a view to proffering viable recommendations for the management of these two factors.Although, godfatherism is a longstanding and deeply rooted feature of the cultural values of Nigerian society, the politicization of godfatherism would appear to have contributed to the criminalization of politics. Godfatherism has become an institutionalized feature in Nigerian politics over the years; its contemporary manifestations suggest that it has assumed epidemic proportions, becoming one of the greatest threats to democratic consolidation in Nigeria (Omotola, 2007). Within this context, Ademola (2004) opined that since 1999, when Nigeria joined the comity of democratically governed countries, it has continued to experience an unprecedented rise in political violence ranging from increased crime wave, armed robbery, political assassinations and religious riots as a result of crises that loomed between godfathers and godsons. Godfathers exist across Nigeria as shown in the cases of Oyo, Kwara, Borno, Enugu, and Anambra states, where patterns of godfather activities were most prominent in the fourth republic. Relevant examples of benevolent godfathers can be traced back to the first republic when the likes of Alhaji Ahmadu Bello, the late Sarduana of Sokoto, was the political godfather of a lot of young people mostly from the northern part of Nigeria, largely because he understood the role of politics and the military in an evolving state; he was quick to place his godchildren strategically in both institutions. The rewards are today self-evident. His godsons have continued to eulogize him and indeed now see him as an icon. In real terms, godfather relationships are known to have existed between Azikiwe and Chief Jim Nwobodo; Sarduana Ahmadu Bello and Alhaji Tafawa Balewa; Mallam Aminu Kano and Alhaji Abubakar Rimi; and Alhaji Lamidi Adedibu and Alhaji Rasheed Ladoja. Interestingly, Jim Nwobodo later became the godfather of Chimaroke Nnamani.It is possible to argue that nothing is actually wrong with godfathering. The practice only becomes a matter of concern when the concept is put in the wrong perspective. In recent times, the application of this concept has mostly resulted to democratic failures and disasters. From denial of electing credible candidates to imposition of mediocrity into political and appointive positions, and the whole experience has been that of pains, misery, penury, squalor and damnation arising from poor performance and poor service delivery among godsons. Again, the whole scenario has been the promotion of political follow-follow mentality and the empowerment of disempowerment. The point that needs to be reinstated here above all is that, it is impossible to understand the character of political godfatherism in the past and its contemporary forms in the Nigeria’s fourth republic. Several cases of political violence in Nigeria that were linked to the influence of godfathers have impacted negatively on the democratic process in Nigeria. The consequences range from the destruction of lives and properties, electoral malpractices, disenfranchisement of many qualified electorates through the engagement of thugs and vote buying and so on. One of such consequences was the blatant disregard for the rule of law, in the case of Anambra State where on the 14th of July 2003, President Olusegun Obasanjo approved the retirement of one Mr. Raphael Ige, an Assistant Inspector General (AIG) in charge of zone 9 of the police force in the state who supervised the abduction of the Anambra state governor, Dr. Chris Ngige. Ige was said to have led four trucks of mobile policemen to Ngige’s office, disarmed the governor’s security aides and whisked him away to a hotel in the state capital, Awka. Simultaneously, the state House of Assembly met and ratified a resignation letter purportedly issued by the governor. It also asked the state chief judge to swear in the deputy governor, Dr. Okechukwu Udeh (The Daily Sun, 2003). All this were orders issued by the self-acclaimed godfather of the state, Chris Uba and carried out without due process as demanded by the constitution. Thus, godfatherism is a threat to Nigeria’s nascent democracy, making it imperative to continue exploring the phenomenon and coming up with possible long-term policies to put an end to this malaise in our society.1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVESThe general objective of the study is to examine the linkage between godfatherism and political violence in Anambra state. The specific objectives of the study are:1. to examine the linkage between godfatherism and political violence in Anambra state.2. to analyze the effect of godfatherism and political violence on the democratic process in Anambra state.3. to examine the implications of political violence on security and development in Anambra state.4. to proffer policy options that will address the challenge of godfatherism and political violence on the democratic process, security and development in Anambra state.1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONSThis study seeks to answer the following research questions:1. What is the linkage between godfatherism and political violence in Anambra state?2. What is the impact of godfatherism on the democratic process and governance in Anambra state?3. What are the implications of political violence on security and development in Anambra state?4. What policy measures are necessary to combat the effects of godfatherism and the resultant political violence on the democratic process, security and development in Anambra state?1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDYSince the beginning of the Fourth republic, Nigeria has been plagued with constant incidences of political violence traceable to the roles of godfathers in Nigeria’s political system with its implications on good governance and security. Various studies that have been conducted have often highlighted the godfatherism factor and its role in politics without proffering possible policy options that would address the challenge of godfatherism and its linkage to political violence. Thus, this study aims to contribute to studies on godfatherism and its linkage to political violence with specific focus on Anambra state. Such a study will proffer viable recommendations that will address the issues of political violence which continues to undermine Nigeria’s nascent democracy. Indeed, it is hardly contentious that the phenomenon of godfatherism and its linkage to political violence constitute a dire threat to Nigeria’s democratic process, national stability and security. Therefore, the study is not only timely, but crucial at the opportune period where Nigeria democratic process is still fragile and all efforts must be geared towards strengthening and consolidating democracy in Nigeria.1.6 SCOPE OF STUDYThe study focuses on the incidents of godfatherism and its role in the political scenery of Anambra state, Nigeria with particular emphasis on its linkage with issues of political violence in the state. The chosen time frame for the study is from 1999 to the 2003 elections which were permeated with the practice of godfatherism in the state and its resultant effect on the democratic process.1.6 STUDY AREAAnambra state is located in the South East Geo-political zone of Nigeria. It was created on the 27th of August, 1991 out of the old Anambra State. The state capital is Awka and its major commercial city is Onitsha. In the 2006 Population and Housing Census, Anambra state was made up of 2,111,984 males and 2,059,844 females. Its ethnicity is predominantly Igbo with a mix of Yoruba, Hausas and Igala. There are 21 local government areas in the state as shown on Fig 1.1. Due to its highly urbanized structure and a population size of over 4million people, coupled with revenue generate from businesses and commercial activities, Anambra state is seen as a hotbed for politicians. Despite these positives, the state has often suffered neglect as subsequent administrations have often failed to perform their executive duties to the benefit of the people as a result of interference from political godfathers who go to extreme lengths in some cases to protect their own interests and not those of the people.1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS1. Godfatherism.According to Kolawole (2004), godfatherism is an institution of political king making through which certain political office holders of tenuous political clout come into power. Hence, it is a relationship based on political surrogacy involving financial and moral assistance where the godfather is the major donor and the godson the primary receiver. Onwugbonu, (2010) equally explains godfatherism as a concept that has to do with the self–perpetuation of office holder otherwise expressed as the power of incumbency. For him, godfatherism implies the one–party domineering manner of politicking that creates unfavorable ground for the viable opposition to emerge or in places where it emerges; the ill-mannered type of “do or die” politics where the ruling party employs the state machinery to out rig the opposition party. Furthermore, godfatherism is equally employed in its generic sense as the situation wherein an individual in a state employs all his machineries and powerful network of political, social, economic and religious advantages to plant a political office holder into power without recourse to the public interests. In general terms therefore, godfatherism is being examined in this study as all manner of efforts that prevent the electorate from exercising their fundamental human rights. It encompasses all efforts that contravene accountability of the supposed “public servant” or the politician to the electorates simply for the fact that he can do without the votes of the electorate.2. Political violence.Violence is psychological or physical force exerted for the purpose of injuring, damaging, or abusing people or property (US Department of Justice, 1996). Political violence is violence outside of state control that is politically motivated. This form of violence is often times orchestrated by parties within the state who hold an interest in the outcome of a political process and are willing to go to the extreme in achieving their desires (Wikipedia). Godfathers whose interests lie with their godsons go to the length of initiating violence to achieve their goals, particularly when those goals are not met as in the Anambra experience between Chris Uba and Chris Ngige.3. Democracy Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens, participate equally-either directly or indirectly through elected representatives in the proposal, development and creation of laws. For Cohen (1998), “the fundamental idea of democracy or political legitimacy is that the authorization to exercise state power must arise from the collective decisions of the equal members of a society who are governed by that power”. This idea of democracy was totally discredited when the role of the self-proclaimed godfather of Anambra state is put under consideration. He proclaimed himself to have single-handedly installed the governor and members of the legislative in the 2003 elections in the state, thus denying citizens to exercise their franchise by electing representatives of their own choosing.4. National securityNational security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic power, diplomacy, power projection and political power. It is also seen as a state or condition where our most cherished values and beliefs, our democratic way of life, our institutions of governance and our unity, welfare and well-being as a nation and people are permanently protected and continuously enhanced (Aquino, 2011). The Nigerian state is a society that has seen its nascent democracy come under threat by the activities of political godfathers, whose activities remain a threat to governance, security and the wellbeing of the people who are often denied the opportunity to exercise their fundamental rights as members of a democratic process.5. Human securityThe term Human Security was first popularized by the United Nations Development Program in the early 1990s. It emerged in the post-Cold War era as a way to link various humanitarian, economic, and social issues in order to alleviate human suffering and assure security. The issues Human Security addresses include, but are not limited to, the following: organized crime and criminal violence, human rights and good governance, armed conflict and intervention, genocide and mass crimes, health and development, resources and environment. These human security issues have become the implications of godfatherism on the Nigerian democratic process as witnessed with incessant violence perpetrated against the citizenry. Human Security focuses primarily on protecting people while promoting peace and assuring sustainable continuous development. It emphasizes aiding individuals by using a people-centered approach for resolving inequalities that affect security. The security of the individual now directly impacts the security of the state and vice versa. In describing what Human Security is, former Secretary General of the United Nations Kofi Annan writes in the Foreword to Human Security and the New Diplomacy:“During the cold war, security tended to be defined almost entirely in terms of military might and the balance of terror. Today, we know that ‘security’ means far more than the absence of conflict. We also have a greater appreciation for nonmilitary sources of conflict. We know that lasting peace requires a broader vision encompassing areas such as education and health, democracy and human rights, protection against environmental degradation, and the proliferation of deadly weapons (Human Security Initiative, 2011)..