1.1 Background to the Study

The idea of using materials and equipment to enhance effectiveness in the instructional process is as old as mankind, the wise teacher will always use equipment or aids in form of instructional materials to help the learners understand and learn better. The unavailability of instructional materials in our primary schools and the little or no use of the available ones have impacted on the performance of children at the primary level. In recent years, there have been discussions and debates on the falling standard of education. The blame has been shifted from one education variable to another. Teachers, parents, and pupils share the blame, ministries of education are often blamed for the deteriorating condition in schools. It is with this background in mind that the researchers undertook the research on accessibility and the utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Local Government Primary Schools.

Instructional materials are doubtlessly useful tools hence when applied effectively by a teacher help to enrich his teaching and stimulate in his student the desire to learn. Instructional materials, however, do not achieve any of the attributed value on their own, their usefulness depends on what the teacher makes out of them. Intelligent handling of these materials in the classroom is necessary. For effective utilization of instructional materials, teachers must understand how to use and control instructional materials. Unless the classroom teacher uses these devices and directs the pupil's attention to what they should look for, the pupils will not learn as much as intended from the devices. To illustrate ideas, demonstrate abstract ideas and processes, and show the relationship of ideas in developing sequence requires an intelligent application of instructional materials. It is of utmost importance, for the teacher to be at home with the limitation of the chosen materials so as to facilitate its effective utilization.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

As it is established that instructional material can enhance effectively teaching and learning in our schools, it is not out of place to assess their 3 availability and utilization in the promotion of effective and efficient teaching and learning. It is against this fact that the current study assessed the availability and utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Local Government Area Primary Schools. 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally, the study aimed at assessing, availability, and utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Primary Schools. Specifically, the study has the following objectives; i) To identify the availability of instructional material in Wamakko Primary Schools. ii) To examine if the availability of instructional materials is adequately used in Wamakko Primary Schools. iii) To determine how often the available instructional material is put to use in Wamakko Primary Schools. iv) To examine the problems hindering the effective utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Primary Schools

1.4 Research Questions

To facilitate investigation of the problem of this study the following research questions were raised; 1. What are the available instructional materials for teaching and learning in Primary Schools in Wamakko Local Government Area? 2. Are the available instructional materials adequately used? 3. How often are the available instructional materials put to use? 4. What are the problems that hinder the effective utilization of the available instructional materials?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study provides a channel for determining the situation about the availability and utilization of instructional materials in our schools. It is anticipated that the finding could go along way in helping stakeholders, educational administrators, manager, and educational planners in Wamakko Local Government Area of Sokoto State and Federal at large to improve their service to the primary schools. It would also make them understand various the problem affecting the utilization of instructional materials and make necessary corrections as the future of our young children depends on the background we are able to provide for them and its own this background that they are going to be developed. If the suggestions and recommendations proffered by the end of this research is adopted, teachers and learners would greatly and positively benefit. This could be possible when students’ need, capabilities, special interests, motivation and the style of teaching/learning conditions are taken into account. The recommendation would also hopefully modify teachers attitude to teaching and would provide them with the enthusiasm to make the best use of the available materials by themselves so as to fulfill their roles as expert communicators.

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the study

This study is to find out the availability and utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Local Government Primary School. This study is only concerned with the availability and utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Local Government Primary Schools. 6 To identify the availability of instructional material in Wamakko Primary Schools; To examine if the availability of instructional materials are adequately used in Wamakko Primary Schools; To determine how often the available instructional material is put to use in Wamakko Primary Schools.; To examine the problems hindering the effective utilization of instructional materials in Wamakko Primary Schools. 

1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

 Accessibility: The ability to access and benefit from some system or entity.

 Availability: This means having at hand the required or needed material or services

 Utilization: The act of using something or the manner in which something is used.

 Instructional: Intended for the purpose of instruction.

 Material: This refers to a physical object or as the physical components of something, to relevant facts, jokes, or items that are part of a performers routine or the things required to build something or accomplish a task 

 Instructional Materials: Can be defined as all the resources a teacher uses to help him/her explain or elucidate the topic contents/subject to the learner so that the learners are able to comprehend the topic fully.

 School: It is a place where teaching and learning takes place


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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