HALITOSIS AMONG STUDENT IN SHEHU IDRIS COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, MAKARFI, KADUNA STATE
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONBackground of the Study
Halitosis or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odor exhaled in breathing (Gage, 2007). Halitosis can be an important social problem in which the standard dental treatment and mouth wash that is often recommended provide only temporary relief. The smell is from an oral source due to bacterial activities (Rosemberg, 2002). Oral malodor is primarily the result of microbial metabolism, the mouth is a home of hundreds of bacterial species with various nutritional preferences. The The most common location for mouth-related halitosis is the tongue. Tongue bacterial produce malodor and fatty acid and count for about 80 to 90 percent of all cases of mouth-related bad breath. Large quantities of naturally occurring bacteria are often found on the dorsum of the tongue, where they are relatively undisturbed by normal activities. This part of the tongue is relatively dry and poorly cleansed and bacterial populations can thrive on remnants of food deposits, dead epithelial cells, and postnasal drip. The convoluted microbial structure of the tongue dorsum provides an ideal habitat for anaerobic bacterial, which flourish under a continually – forming tongue coating of food debris, dead cells, postnasal drip, and overlying bacteria living and dead when left on the tongue the anaerobic respiration of such bacterial can yield either the putrescent smell of indole, skatole, methyl mercaptan, allow methyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide (Tonzentich, 1997). The organism digests protein and several fetid substances arise leading to bad breath. Oral malodor from the overgrowth of proteolytic, anaerobic gram-negative bacterial the crevices of the tongue dorsum can be successfully diagnosed and treated (Lochner et al, 2000). There are several causes of halitosis although the main one is oral bacterial over 90 million people suffer from chronic halitosis which is the medical term for bad breath, in most cases, halitosis originate from the gums and tongue, caused by bacterial from the decay of food particles, other debris in the mouth and poor oral hygiene. In most cases (85-90%) bad breath originates in the mouth itself. The intensity of bad breath differs during the day, due to eating certain foods such as garlic, onions, meat, fish, egg, cheese, smoking, and alcohol consumption, since the mouth is exposed to less oxygen and is inactive during the night, the odor is usually worse upon awakening (morning breath). Bad the breath may be transient often disappearing following brushing teeth, flushing, or rinsing with a special mouth wash (Tammy Devenport, 2007). Bad breath may also be persistent (chronic bad breath). Which is a more serious condition affecting some 25 percent of the population in varying degrees. It can negatively affect the individual’s personal, social, and business relationship leading to poor self-esteem and increased stress. Halitosis is a medical term for bad breath and this is quite serious as a social disorder. Halitosis can cause an extremely embarrassing situation in social interaction and relationships at work and in your personal life as well (Lell et al, 2006). However, some bad breath seems to be associated with local pathological causes such as gingivitis (especially ANUG), periodontal disease, infected extraction sockets, or other types of coral species. In some cases, other possibilities that favor oral malodor are the presence of residual blood postoperatively, debris under the bridge or appliances, ulcer, dry mouth, and perfection of postnasal mucus drip stagnating on the tongue (Wd Kazor, 2002). Various methods used to control halitosis (bad breath) the most widely-known reason to clean the tongue is for the control of bad breath. The method used against bad breath, such as mints, mouth sprays, and mouth wash, may only temporarily mask the odor created by the bacteria on the tongue but cannot cure bad breath because they don’t remove the source of bad breath, in order to prevent the production of the sulfur-containing compounds mention above the bacteria on the tongue must be removed regularly. Most people who clean their tongue use a (tongue scraper) or a toothbrush (Dent Hes, 2007). Statement of the Problems Eating certain foods, like cooked eggs, garlic, onion which when absorbed into our bloodstream is transferred to the lungs and exhaled breath will be produced as bad breath. Suffering from some systemic diseases such as liver and kidney, diabetic Mellitus, digestive tract infection whereby gases are blocked from passing the stomach or intestines. When the mouth is dry, saliva production decreases leaving the mouth's natural ability to clean itself impaired. Saliva is the mouth’s natural mouth wash which contains properties that keep the mouth clean. Purpose of the Study 1) To identify the occurrence of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi. 2) To find out the causes of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi. 3) To determine the measures of awareness, prevention, and treatment of Halitosis. 4) To create hope that there is a solution to the problems of Halitosis. Significance of the Study The significance of the study is to find out the occurrence of halitosis among the students in SICHST, Makarfi. This will help to proffer suggestion in understanding the existing oral health problems and develop oral health programs in the College and assist oral health practitioners to provide special oral health services such as oral health talk to entire students in SICHST Makarfi, and also help the management of the College to introduce oral health care in every department. Research Questions 1) How common is Halitosis among students in SICHST Markafi? 2) What is the predisposing factors that lead to Halitosis? 3) What is the measures of awareness, prevention, and treatment of Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi? Scope of the Study The scope of this study is limited to Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi consists of causes, prevention, and treatment..