Students’ learning in tertiary institutions all over the world has undergone tremendous transformations, especially since the advent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). There is a shift from the traditional approach of teacher directed/didactic to modern method where computer technology plays a significant role. ICT has promoted learning and made it more meaningful where students can stay even in their homes or classrooms and receive lecturers without seeing the lecturer. The aspect of ICT that has brought about this revolution in students’ learning is e-learning.

E-learning as explained by Open Learning Centre (2007) is an educational resource that helps in effective teaching and learning process created through combining e-digital content with local community and tutor support along with global community engagement. It is also an effective and efficient system of self-paced personal training available over the internet. The Commission of Technology and Adult (2001) defined e-learning as instructional content or learning experiences delivered or enabled by electronic technology. Also, Erah (2006) stated that the term e-learning refers to computer-enhanced training as opposed to the computer-based training of the 1980s. It is usually delivered through personal computers and includes learning delivered by other communication technologies.

The devices often used for this purpose include:- laptops or personal computers, CD ROMs. Television, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). MP3 players and mobile phones. Communication technologies enable the use of internet e-mail, discussion forms, collaborative software, classroom management software, team learning systems, intranet, extranet, Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), audio and videotapes, satellite down links, computerized diagnostic assessment, competency certification and electronic portfolios (Asogwa, 2006).

E-learning is based on electronic formats (Bodys, 2005). It can benefit any students or teacher irrespective of the background. E-learning is a major issue in pedagogy of individualized instruction, self pace study etc, which is; adapting the teaching to the needs of various learners. E-learning provides this by making available the required learning materials for teaching of these vocational subjects which eventually leads to increased graduation rates and lower failure rates of students.

Finally, it promotes equity by providing students with access to courses which may not ordinarily be available and providing teachers with materials for teaching (Asogwa, 2006).

2.2   Concept of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Initially in business and other organizations, internal reporting was produced manually and only periodically, as by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistic(s) and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. Data was organized manually according to the requirements and necessity of the organization. As computational technology developed, information began to be distinguished from data and systems were developed to produce and organize abstractions, summaries, relationships and generalizations based on the data.

Early business computers were used for simple operations such as tracking sales or payroll data, with little detail or structure. Over time, those computer applications became more complex, hardware storage capacities grew, and technologies improved for connecting previously isolated applications. As more and more data was stored and linked, managers sought greater detail as well as greater abstraction with the aim of creating entire management reports from the raw, stored data. The term “MIS” arose to describe such applications providing managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managing the enterprise. Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes (but is not limited to): decision support system resource and people management applications, enterprise resource planning (ERP), enterprise performance management (EPM), supply chain management (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM), project management and database retrieval applications.

Various authors had define ICT differently, among them is Onuma (2007), he define ICT as the aspect of managing and processing information through the use of electronic computers and computers software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information. It can also been seen as computer-based tools used by people to work with information and communication processing needs of an individual or organization. It encompasses the computer, computer hardware and software, the network and several other devices (video, audio, macro-electronic devices, software etc.) that convert information (text), image, sounds and motion into common form (Akubuilo, 2007). It is the handling and processing of information for use by means of electronic and communication gadgets such as computers such as computers, cameras, telephones etc.

Information is a term with many meanings depending on the context; it is seen as organized data which is understood to have significance and meaning or data that have been processed and presented in a form suitable for human interpretation, often with the purpose of revealing trends or patterns or an organized data that has been arranged for better comprehension and understanding. However, communication takes place when information is shared interchangeably between two or more individual is a major component of ICT is a process by which people exchange information or express their thoughts and feelings.

Technology simply implies the application of knowledge to meet the goals, goods and services desired by the people. It is the innovation, change or modification of the natural environment to satisfy perceived human needs and wants ICT is the scientific tool and techniques for developing, documenting and communicating information when especially as they concern solving problems, providing need services in the various areas of human endeavours. ICT can also be described as a whole range of technologies involved in information processing. It is a term used to described technologies, which receives, record, processes, transmit and retrieves information. It is the handling and processing of information by means of electronic and communication devices such as computers, cameras, telephones etc. It is therefore, a scientific method of sharing, exchanging and sending or moving such information from one place to another.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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