THE EFFECT OF COMPUTER USAGE ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

THE EFFECT OF COMPUTER USAGE ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY  

During the last two decades, education institutions have invested heavily in information and communication technologies (ICT) particularly computers. The use of computers has had a major impact in the secondary school context, and in teaching and learning methods (Ema and Ajayi, 2006).

One puzzling question is the effective impact of this computer usage on student achievement and on the returns of education. Many academic researchers have tried to answer this question at the theoretical and empirical levels. According to Anyanwu (2003), they have faced two main difficulties. On one hand, student performance is hard to observe and there is still confusion about its definition. On the other hand, the computer is evolving technologies and their effects are difficult to isolate from their environment.

There is no standard definition for student achievement. The standard approach focuses on achievement and curricula, how students understand the subjects and obtain their certificate or their marks. However, a more extensive definition deals with competencies, skills and attitudes learned through the education experience (Kamba, 2009). The narrow definition allows the observation of the outcomes of any change in secondary education, while the more extensive definition needs a more complex strategy of observation and a focus on the labor market. The outcomes of education are mainly validated in higher institutions. The effect of computer usage on learning is currently in relation to the internet to facilitate teaching and learning. Computers are the technologies used in conveying, manipulating, and storage of data by electronic means, they provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text-bound classrooms into rich, student-focused, interactive knowledge environments (Ogunsola, 2005).

To meet these challenges, secondary schools must embrace the new technologies and appropriate computer use for learning. The relationship between the use of computers and student performance in secondary schools is not clear, and there are contradictory results in the literature. Earlier economic research has failed to provide a clear consensus concerning the effect on students’ achievement (Kamba, 2009).

Since student performance is mainly explained by a student’s characteristics, educational environment, and teachers’ characteristics, the use of computers may have an impact on these determinants and consequently the outcome of education. The differences observed in the performances of students are thus more related to the differentiated impact of computer usage on the standard determinants.

The direct link between computer use and students’ achievement has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. Several studies have tried to explain the role and the added value of computer technologies in classrooms and on student’s achievement. The first body of literature explored the impact of computer uses. Since the Internet revolution, there has been a shift in the literature that focuses more on the impact of online activities: use of the Internet, use of educative online platforms, digital devices, use of blogs and wikis, etc. Looking at the link between computer usage and student achievement seems nowadays a misunderstanding of the role and nature of these technologies. In fact, since the computer is general-purpose technology (GPT), it needs to be specified in order to meet the needs expressed by students and to be adapted to the local context and constraints (Antonelli, 2003; Youssef, 2008).

A variety of models of usages can be identified leading to the same outcome. Computer usage brings widened possibilities for the learning processes that are independent of place and space. Computer usage also allows more flexible (asynchronous) and more personalized learning. It offers new methods of delivering subjects at the secondary education level. Taking advantage of these opportunities needs a profound change in the organization of the secondary education system.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM For many years, educational researchers have maintained an interest in the effective prediction of students’ academic achievement at school. The prediction and explanation of academic achievement and the examination of the factors relating to academic achievement are topics of greatest importance in different educational levels. Studies have shown that prior academic achievement is an important predictor of performance at other levels of education. Similarly, cognitive ability was found as the strongest predictor of academic achievement. However, some studies confirm that the correlation between cognitive ability and academic achievement tends to decline as students progress in the educational system. The direct link between computer usage and students’ academic achievement has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. Some of them help students with their learning by improving the communication between them and the instructors (Valasidou and Bousiou, 2005). Leuven et al. (2004) stated that there is no evidence for a relationship between increased educational use of computers and students’ academic achievement. In fact, they find a consistently negative and marginally significant relationship between computer usage and some student achievement measures. In support of these, some students may use computer usage to increase their leisure time and have less time to study. Online gaming and increased communication channels do not necessarily mean increased achievement. Based on all these, the researcher is examining the effect of computer usage on the academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria.1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are the objectives of this study:

To examine the relationship between computer usage and academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria. To examine the effectiveness of computer usage in the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Nigeria. To identify the disadvantages of computer usage in secondary schools in Nigeria.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What is the relationship between computer usage and the academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria? What is the effectiveness of computer usage in the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Nigeria? What are the demerits of computer usage in secondary schools in Nigeria?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS HO: There is no significant relationship between computer usage and academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria. HA: There is a significant relationship between computer usage and the academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The outcome of this study aims at determining whether or not the use of computers has any significant influence on the academic achievement of students in secondary schools in Nigeria. Moreover, education is the bedrock of any society. Nigeria as a developing nation needs standard secondary schools that have available learning resources, that teachers can improvise learning resources easily and more often also where teachers and students utilize learning resources on a regular basis. It could be a guideline for incoming students and be educative to them when writing and studying similar problems in school. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality traits on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study will cover the level of computer usage in secondary schools in Nigeria with a view of ascertaining its influence on student’s academic achievement.LIMITATION OF STUDYFinancial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview).Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted to the research work. REFERENCES Anyanwu, J. M. (2003). The Effectiveness of Instructional Materials in Teaching of Social Studies in some Selected Post Primary School in Owerri Educational Zone Imo State. (B. ed) Research Project Unpublished. Ema, E. & Ajayi, D. T. (2006). Educational Technology: Methods, Materials, Machines. Jos: Jos University Press Ltd. Ogunsola, L.A. (2005). Information Communication Technologies and the Effects of Globalization: Twenty-First-century “Digital Slavery” for Developing Countries- Myth or Reality?. Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship 6 (1-2); pp. 1-10. Kamba M. A., (2009). Problems, Challenges and Benefits of Implementing E-learning in Nigerian Universities: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning. Valasidou H. & Bousiou (2005). Information Communication Technologies and Development. Available at: http://usdnhq.undp.prg/it4dev/ {Accessed 10 July 2012}. Antonelli. B.D. (2003). Information Communication Technology for Development. No 5, pp 1- 31. Youssef, M. O. (2008). Information and Communication Technology and Education: Analysing the Nigerian National Policy for Information Technology. International Education Journal, 2005, Vol., 6(3), pp. 316-321.

   

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

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    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

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