INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: APPLICATION AND BENEFITS TO HUMAN LIFE

INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: APPLICATION AND BENEFITS TO HUMAN LIFE   

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY  

According to wikipedia (2015), artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the academic field of study in computer science which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behavior. Major artificial intelligence researchers and other sources define this field as the study and design of intelligent agents, in which an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term as far back as 1955, defines it as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.

Artificial intelligence is a branch of Computer Science concerned with the study and creation of computer systems. Artificial intelligence exhibits some form of intelligence by way of introducing systems that learn new concepts and tasks and also have the ability to reason and draw useful conclusions about the world. Artificial intelligence systems also can understand a natural language or perceive and comprehend a visual scene, and perform other types of feats that require human types of intelligence (Freitas, 1999).

Artificial intelligence research is highly technical and specialized, and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers (Drexler, 1986). Artificial intelligence research is also divided by several technical issues. Some subfields focus on the solution of specific problems. Others focus on one of several possible approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems (or goals) of artificial intelligence research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is still among the field's long-term goals (Bostrom, 2002). Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic artificial intelligence. There are a large number of tools used in artificial intelligence, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others. The artificial intelligence field is interdisciplinary, in which a number of sciences and professions converge, including computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy and neuroscience, as well as other specialized fields such as artificial psychology (Hanson, 1998).

According to Moravec, (1999), the field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it. This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity (Kurzweil, 1999). Artificial intelligence has been the subject of tremendous optimism but has also suffered stunning setbacks. Today it has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most challenging problems in computer science (Yudkowsky, 2003).

Artificial intelligence also deals with study of ideas to bring into being machines that respond to stimulation consistent with traditional responses from humans, given the human capacity for contemplation, judgment and intention (Vinge, 1993). Each such machine should engage in critical appraisal and selection of differing opinions within itself. Produced by human skill and labor, these machines should conduct themselves in agreement with life, spirit and sensitivity, though in reality, they are imitations. Other researcher has seen artificial intelligence as systems that combine sophisticated hardware and software with elaborate databases and knowledge-based processing models to demonstrate characteristics of effective human decision making. However, the researcher will provide an indebt study into the introduction to artificial intelligence and its application and benefit to human being

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM It is a known fact that the field of artificial intelligence is relatively young (Yudkowsky, 2002). The creation of Artificial Intelligence as an academic discipline can be traced to the 1950s, when scientists and researchers began to consider the possibility of machines processing intellectual capabilities similar to those of human beings. Alan Turing, a British mathematician, first proposed a test to determine whether or not a machine is intelligent. The test later became known as the Turing Test, in which a machine tries to disguise itself as a human being in an imitation game by giving human-like responses to a series of questions. Turing believed that if a machine could make a human being believe that he or she is communicating with another human being, then the machine can be considered (Bostrom, 2002). However, artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, remote sensing, scientific discovery and toys. However, many Artificial intelligence applications are not perceived as artificial intelligence (Bostrom, 2002). A lot of cutting edge artificial intelligence has filtered into general applications, often without being called artificial intelligence because once something becomes useful enough and common enough it's not labeled artificial intelligence anymore," Nick Bostrom reports. "Many thousands of artificial intelligence applications are deeply embedded in the infrastructure of every industry. In the late 90s and early 21st century, Artificial intelligence technology became widely used as elements of larger systems, but the field is rarely credited for these successes. For example; finance, hospitals and medicines, heavy industries, online and telephone customer service, transportation, telecommunication, toys and games, music, aviation, news, publishing & writing. However, this study seeks to provide an overview of artificial intelligence, its application and use to human being in general (Bostrom, 2002).

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To examine the historical development of artificial intelligence. To find out the application and benefits of artificial intelligence to mankind. To ascertain the prospects of artificial intelligence.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

How was artificial intelligence developed historically? What are the application and benefits of artificial intelligence to mankind? What are the prospects of artificial intelligence?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS HO: Artificial intelligence does not benefit human life in any way HA: Artificial intelligence does not benefit human life in any way

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY This research will be of significance in the following area:

It will be of help to stakeholders in various sectors for example health, finance, education, security, engineering, manufacturing, research and technology in understanding the application and benefits of Artificial intelligence to enhance productivity and effectiveness of the sectors. The findings of this research work will also serve as reference for academic endeavour to lecturers and students and also help the public who would want to know about some advantages and disadvantages (if any) of the use of the artificial intelligence. Findings and recommendations from this study will guide the stakeholders in various sector determine the type artificial intelligence to be adopted and also help them identify specific areas where artificial intelligence can be applied.

1.7   SCOPE OF STUDY This study on application and benefits of artificial intelligence will cover the overview of the historical development of artificial intelligence as a branch of computer science that deals with creating computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behavior. However, this study will examine the application and benefits of the Artificial intelligence to human life and this research will also consider the future and prospects of artificial intelligence1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS In this research work, the terms defined reflect how the researcher wants them to be understood in the context of this work Behaviour- the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others Artificial- made or produced by human beings rather than occurring naturally, especially as a copy of something natural. Computer- an electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals. Intelligence - the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. Innovation- The process of translating an idea or invention into a good or service that creates value

REFERENCES

Bostrom, N. (2002). "Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards." Journal of Evolution and Technology, 9. http://www.nickbostrom.com/existential/risks.html Drexler, K. E. (1986): Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. (Anchor Books: New York, 1986). http://www.foresight.org/EOC/index.html Freitas Jr., R. A. (1999): Nanomedicine, Volume 1: Basic Capabilities. (Landes Bioscience: Georgetown, TX, 1999). http://www.nanomedicine.com Hanson, R., et al. (1998). "A Critical Discussion of Vinge's Singularity Concept." Extropy Online. http://www.extropy.org/eo/articles/vi.html Kurzweil, R. (1999): The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence. (Viking: New York, 1999). Moravec, H. (1999): Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind. (Oxford University Press: New York, 1999). Vinge, V. (1993). "The Coming Technological Singularity." Whole Earth Review, Winter issue. Wikipedia, 2015: www.wikipedia.com Yudkowsky, E. (2002). "The AI Box Experiment." Webpage. http://sysopmind.com/essays/aibox.html

Yudkowsky, E. (2003). Creating Friendly AI 1.0. http://www.singinst.org/CFAI/index.html

Project Topics   Project Topics and Materials   

.

Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.