IMPROVING THE CAPACITY OF A RENEWABLE POWER SYSTEM, USING SOLAR POWER PANEL (A CASE STUDY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND SOFTWARE LAB

 IMPROVING THE CAPACITY OF A RENEWABLE POWER SYSTEM, USING SOLAR POWER PANEL (A CASE STUDY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND SOFTWARE LAB

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY  

The use of renewable energy increased greatly just after the first big oil crisis in the late seventies. At that time, economic issues were the most important factors, hence interest in such processes decreased when oil prices fell. The current resurgence of interest in the use of renewable energy is driven by the need to reduce the high environmental impact of fossil-based energy systems. Harvesting energy on a large scale is undoubtedly one of the main challenges of our time. Future energy sustainability depends heavily on how the capacity of renewable energy is improved in the next few decades.

Although in most power-generating systems, the main source of energy (the fuel) can be manipulated, this is not true for solar and wind energies (Valenzuela, et al, 2004). The main problems with these energy sources are cost and availability, wind and solar power are not always available where and when needed. Unlike conventional sources of electric power, these renewable sources are not “dispatchable”—the power output cannot be controlled. Daily and seasonal effects and limited predictability result in intermittent generation. Some manufacturers has released products to facilitate the integration of renewable energy but the researcher is examining ways of improving the capacity of renewable power system using solar power panel (Camacho et al, 2007). Industry must overcome a number of technical issues to deliver renewable energy in significant quantities. Control is one of the key enabling technologies for the deployment of renewable energy systems. Solar power requires effective use of advanced control techniques. In addition, reliable electric supply cannot be achieved without extensive use of control technologies at all levels.

Solar power plant exhibit changing dynamics, nonlinearities, and uncertainties—challenges that require advanced control strategies to solve effectively. The use of more efficient control strategies would not only increase the performance of these systems, but would increase the number of operational hours of solar and wind plants and thus reduce the cost per kilowatt-hour (KWh) produced.

The solar have tremendous potential for fulfilling the world’s energy needs (White House, 2010). One of the greatest scientific and technological opportunities researchers are faced with is approaches to developing efficient ways to collect, convert, store, and utilize solar energy at an affordable cost. The solar power reaching the earth’s surface is about 86,000 TW. Covering 0.22% of our planet with solar collectors with an efficiency of 8% would be enough to satisfy the current global power consumption. Estimates are that an energy project utilizing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology deployed over an area of approximately 160 x 160 km in the Southwest U.S. could produce enough power for the entire U.S. consumption. Solar-sourced electricity can be generated either directly using photovoltaic (PV) cells or indirectly by collecting and concentrating the solar power to produce steam, which is then used to drive a turbine to provide the electric power (CSP).

Concentrating solar thermal systems use optical devices (usually mirrors) and sun-tracking systems to concentrate a large area of sunlight onto a smaller receiving area. The concentrated solar energy is then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant. A wide range of concentrating technologies exists, the main ones being parabolic troughs, solar dishes, linear Fresnel reflectors, and solar power towers. The primary purpose of concentrating solar energy is to produce high temperatures and therefore high thermodynamic efficiencies.

Parabolic trough systems are the most commonly used CSP technology. A parabolic trough consists of a linear parabolic mirror that reflects and concentrates the received solar energy onto a tube (receiver) positioned along the focal line. The heat transfer fluid is pumped through the receiver tube and picks up the heat transferred through the receiver tube walls. The parabolic mirror follows the sun by tracking along a single axis. Linear Fresnel reflectors use various thin mirror strips to concentrate sunlight onto tubes containing heat transfer fluid. Higher concentration can be obtained, and the mirrors are cheaper than parabolic mirrors, but a more complex tracking mechanism is needed.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The uncertainty and intermittency of solar generation are major complications that must be addressed before the full potential of this renewable power system can be reached. The researcher provides an overview of a solar power panel withan evolution of electricity networks toward greater reliance on communications, computation, and control which is a way aimed at improving it. The application of advanced digital technologies (i.e., microprocessor-based measurement and control, communications, computing, and information systems) which are expected to greatly improve the reliability, security, interoperability, and efficiency of the electrical grid, while reducing environmental impacts and promoting economic growth will be considered. 1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are the objectives of this study:

To provide an overview on renewable power system and its capacity. To examine ways of improving the capacity of renewable power system using the solar power panel. To identify the limitations of solar power system

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What is renewable power system and its capacity? What are the ways of improving the capacity of renewable power system using the solar power panel? What are the limitations of solar power system?

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The following are the significance of this study:

Findings from this study will educate students on renewable power system with emphasis on solar power system. It will educate researchers on methods of improving the existing solar power technology. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study will cover approaches at improving the existing solar power technology with a view of optimizing the operation of the system and minimizing environmental impacts.LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES E.F. Camacho, F. Rubio, M. Berenguel, and L. Valenzuela. “A survey on control schemes for distributed solar collector fields (part 1 and 2),” Solar Energy, vol. 81, pp. 1240-1272, 2007 L. Valenzuela, E. Zarza, M. Berenguel, and E.F. Camacho. “Direct steam generation in solar boilers,” IEEE Control Systems Magazine, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 15-29, 2004. White House. Weekly address [Online], July 3, 2010. Available at, http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/ 2010/07/03/weekly-address-a-solar-recovery#.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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