A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF CHILD LABOUR ON SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

 A STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF CHILD LABOUR ON SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

Child labour is about children who work long hours for little or no wages.  Often under conditions harmful to their health.  The International Labour Organization (ILO) (1998), estimated that 24.6 percent of children between the ages of 10 – 14 in Nigeria were working.  The United Nations Children Educational Fund (UNICEF) (1994), reported that approximately 24 percent (12 million) of all children under the age of 16 worked. Child labour is found predominantly in the informal sector.  In rural area, children are found working in agricultural and on family farms.  They are seldom employed by state’s owned commercial agricultural plantations, which are responsible for much of the agricultural production for export. In cottage industries and mechanic workshops, children work as apprentices in various crafts or trades, such as weaving, tailoring, catering etc.  In urban areas and towns children work on the street as vendors, car washers, scavengers, beggars, head-load carriers, feet washers and bus conductors.  The Child Welfare League (1996) reported that in Lagos alone, there were 100,000 boys and girls living and working on streets. In Northern Nigeria, children known as Almagiri survive on the street by begging.  Often, children in these situations don’t receive any formal education.  Instead, they are forced to serve as domestic servants, become hawkers, or engage in other activities and many of them are vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse by their guardiance. With increase incidence of trafficking in children particularly girls for sex and domestic work, the International Labour Organization (ILO) (2003), estimates the incidence of child labour in Nigeria for persons aged 10-14 years is approximately 12 million.  South-West, a greater number of girls and women end up in prostitution while in the East the problem affects mainly boys who find themselves trafficking in agricultural, domestic, trading and apprenticeship jobs. According to the survey conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics in conjunction with the International Labour Organization in 2003, Nigeria is a source, transit and destination country for child labour.  Children from Benin Republic and other African countries are trafficked to Nigeria where some are forced to work as domestic workers, prostitutes or other forced labour conditions. Nigerian children are trafficked internally and to West and Central Africa for domestic labour and street hawking. Ashagrie (1998) states that government and International organizations usually treat a person as economically active or gainfully employed if the person works on a regular basis for which he or she is remunerated. While child’s work is used when describing the activities that children actually undertake. Amma (2000) had tried specifically to look at child’s work in a more detailed way.  To him child work covers tasks and activities that are undertaken by children to assist their parents in particular such jobs as cooking, washing dishes, weeding, planting, harvesting crops, fetching water and fine wood, herding cattle and baby sitting in this case, child work simply aims at the tasks and activities which are geared towards the socialization process.  Child work is therefore taken and viewed as part of the upbringing process. Child labour refers to work carried out to the detriment and endangerment of the child, mentally, physically, socially and morally.  It is characterized by denial of the right of children’s education and other opportunities. Children’s separation from their families are poor working conditions that includes among others long working hours, poor working environment, heavy work regardless of age and sex and so on.  Bonded labour or debt bondage on the other hand; “the status or condition arising from a pledge by a debtor of his personal services or those of a person under his control as security for a debt”. Bonded labour typically occurs where a person needing a loan and having no security to offer pledges his/her labour, or that of someone under his/her control as a security for a loan.  The interest on the loan may be so high that it cannot be paid, or the labourer may be deemed to repay the interest on the loan but not the capital.  Thus, the loan is inherited and perpetuated and becomes an inter-generational debt.  Bonded labour is identified as one of the worse forms of child labour in ILO Convention 182.  Children may be exploited for sexual work the term which is referred to as “Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC). According to US Embassy Stockholm (1996), child labour is the inducement or coercion of a child to engage in practices, or the exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials. Worst forms of labour according to ILO Convention No. 182 (1999) as ratified in 2003 is defined as: all forms of slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage, forced or compulsory labour including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict; the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution, for the illicit activities in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as defined in the relevant international treaties; work which by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children. Child Labour Initiatives – On August 2000, the Government of Nigeria signed a Memorandum of Understanding with ILO, becoming a member of ILO’s international programme of the elimination of child labour (IPEC) (ILO and IPEC).  As part of effort to address child labour in the country, the Government of Nigeria and IPEC, with funding support of the U.S. Department of Labour (US DOL) have launched a country programme and established as National Steering Committee that includes representative from the government, labour, industry and Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs).  The Steering Committee is responsible for developing and overseeing implementation of a national plan of action on child labour.  In addition, Nigeria has carried out a national plan of action on child labour survey with technical support from ILO and IPEC’s Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour (SIMPOC) and funding from USDOL. Nigeria is also active in an ILO-IPEC regional project funded by USDOL to combat trafficking of children for labour exploitation in West and Central Africa.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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