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Mosquito repellents are substances that can be used to repel mosquitoes which is a vector that transmits malaria. A typical example of a mosquito repellent is a mosquito coil which drives away mosquito when it is ignited. The smoke that is emitted from burning a mosquito coil contains active ingredients used to prevent mosquitoes from biting particularly during the hour of sleep having been designed to burn for hours. These active ingredients have known to act as the repellent agents which causes a distasteful environment for the mosquito and act as agents of immobilization which disturbs the food searching mechanism of the mosquito. Orange peels (Cestrum) contain oil known as Limonene oil which has a  lethal effect on mosquitoes and some other insects. It can be used as the active ingredient to produce mosquito coil, which when ignited, will repel mosquitoes within the limits of the smoke.


CONTENT                                                                             Title page                                                                               Declaration                                                                                               Certification                                                                                      Dedication                                                                                                 Acknowledgment                                                                                     Table of content                                                                             Abstract                                                                                           

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION                                                                                      1.0    INSECTICIDES (General Overview)                                  

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY/WORK                            

SCOPE OF THE STUDY                                                    

LITERATURE REVIEW                                                       


CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTICIDE                                    



BIOLOGICAL INSECTICIDES                                          

TOXIC EFFECT OF REPELLENT                                    

MOSQUITO COIL                                                                

1.4.1 HOW MOSQUITO COILS WORK                                       1.4.2 HOW TO USE MOSQUITO COILS                                     1.4.3 ADVANTAGES OF USING A MOSQUITO COIL              1.4.4 DISADVANTAGES OF USING MOSQUITO COILS              


CITRUS SINENSIS/ORANGE PLANT                              

1.5.1 IDENTIFICATION                                                                 1.5.2 USES OF CITRUS SINENSIS                                             1.5.3 FOOD VALUE.                                                                      1.5.4 ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE/USES                                    1.5.5 MEDICAL USES/IMPORTANCE      

                                  CHAPTER TWO 2.2    SOURCE OF MATERIALS                                                  2.3    SAMPLE PREPARATION                                                   2.3.1 PREPARATION OF RANGE PEELS                                 2.3.2 PREPARATION OF SAW-DUST                                        2.3.3 PREPARATION OF THE STARCH                                    2.4    PREPARATION OF THE DOUGH 

                                             CHAPTER THREE 3.0    RESULTS                                                                              TABLE 3.1 RESULT OF THE BURNING TIME AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COIL          

                             CHAPTER FOUR DISCUSSION                                                                                  CONCLUSION                                                                                REFERENCES                   


    Insecticide is a substance or a mixture of substances used for killing insects[1]. It is well known fact that many protozoal bacteria diseases are transmitted from man to man by insects. One may combat these diseases not only by means of prohylactic drugs but also by the destruction of the insects carriers.    Insecticide is a chemical compound that is lethally toxic to insects either by ingestion or by body contact. It is applied to vegetation, crops and insect breeding areas either as liquid spray or as dry powder[2].    They are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in 20th century.    Nearly, all insecticides have the potential to significantly after ecosystem, many are toxic to human and others are concentrated in food chain. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides. It is crucially important that all the rural areas in Nigeria are being educated on the need to eradicate insects especially mosquitoes that might breed around the environment and transmit malaria to people living within the enclave.    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in the home being with restricting the availability of insects of three vital commodities; shelter, water and food. If insects become a problem despite such measures, IPM seeks to control them using the safest possible methods targeting the approach to the particular pest[1].    Years now, efforts are geared towards controlling malaria infestation both in urban and rural areas. A lot of measures are being taken to reduce the number of death as a result of malaria.    We hear now and then that numbers being quoted by the analyst that died of malaria attack. Thus, free mosquitoes treated nets are always distributed to families and individuals all in a bid to reduce malaria attack from mosquito bite.    In the light of this, it is necessary to study God-given substances in this case, plant that has embedded substances that will help man combat mosquitoes or at least reduce infestation to the barest minimum.1.1    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY/WORKThe purpose of this work is to produce mosquito repellants using orange peels (cestrum) wastes perse, which will save the cost of production and purchase, thereby increasing its availability especially in the rural areas. If the work is successful, production of mosquitoes repellants using orange peels will provide source of employment to our teaming youths and also make mosquito repellant within the reach of everybody, thereby reducing the number of death due to malaria caused by mosquito bite.1.2    SCOPE OF THE STUDYOrange peels (cestrum) will be prepared and used for the production of mosquito coil, which ignited, will repel mosquitoes within the limit of the smoke. The produced coil will be tested for the effectiveness performance. Cost analysis should also be taken to know weather mass production will be more effective or not.                                                           


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