PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF MISTLETOE LEAVES

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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF MISTLETOE LEAVES 

TABLE OF CONTENT   CONTENT         

Title page                                                                                         Declaration                                                                                        Certification                                                                                      Dedication                                                                                         Acknowledgment                                                                               Table of content                                                                             Abstract                                                                                           

CHAPTER ONE 1.0    INTRODUCTION                                                                        AIM AND OBJECTIVES                                                      

LITERATURE REVIEW OF COMMON                    

NAME MISTLE TOE                                                             1.2    PLANT TAXONOMY                                                            1.3    PHYTOCHEMICALS                                                            1.3.1 TANINS                                                                                  1.3.2 STEROIDS                                                                                      1.3.3 PHENOLS                                                                             1.3.4 SAPONINS                                                                            1.3.5 FLAVONOIDS                                                                       1.3.6 ALKALOIDS                                                                          1.4    MEDICAL USES OF MISTLE TOE                                              CHAPTER TWO 2.0    MATERIALS AND METHODS                                            2.1    REAGENTS                                                                           2.2    CHEMICALS USED                                                              2.3    APPARATUS USED                                                             2.4    PHYTOCHEMICAL METHOD                                             2.5    PREPARATION OF THE SAMPLE                                    2.6    ETHANOLIC EXTRACT                                                       2.7    N-HEXANE EXTRACT                                                                  2.8    AQEOUS EXTRACT                                                            2.9    ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT                                             2.10  CHEMICAL TESTS                                                              2.10.1        TEST FOR ALKAKLOID                                             2.10.2        TEST FOR TANIN                                                       2.10.3        TEST FOR FLAVONOID                                            2.10.4        TEST FOR PHENOLS                                                         2.10.5        TEST FOR STEROID                                                 2.10.6        EMULSION TEST                                                       2.10.7        TEST FOR SAPONIN                                                 2.11            EXPERIMENTAL                                                        2.11.1        PREPARATION OF SAMPLE                                   2.11.2        PREPARATION OF REAGENTS                              2.11.3        EXTRACTION OF SAMPLE                                                2.11.4        AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF THE LEAVE                             2.11.5        N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES                2.11.6        ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVE                2.12            CHEMICAL TESTS                                                     2.12.1        ALKALOID                                                                             2.12.3        FLAVONOID                                                                2.12.4        STEROID (SALKOWSKI TEST)                                2.12.5        SAPONIN                                                                     2.12.6        EMIULSION TEST                                                      2.13            EXTRACTION OF ALKALOIDS                                2.14            METHOD OF SEPARATION                                               2.14            METHODS USED FOR THE TEST                          AREAS FOLLOWS CHAPTER THREE 3.0              RESULTS                                                                    3.1              DISCUSSION ON PHYTOCHEMICAL RESULTS  TABLE 1:   MINIMAL INHIBITION AND MINIMAL BACTERICIDAL CONCENTRATION OF THE FOUR EXTRACTS TABLE 2:   MEAN DIAMETER OF ZONE OF INHIBITION (IN MM) CHAPTER FOUR DISCUSSION                                                                                  CONCLUSION                                                                                RECOMMENDATION                                                                    REFERENCES                                                                              

ABSTRACT The sample of Mistletoe leaves was collected from an orange tree at Ururo in Umunze Anambra State. The leaves were extracted by using some solvents like an ethanolic solvent, aqueous solvent n-hexane solvent, and ethyl acetate solvent. The extracts were further analyzed which helps in determining the presence of phytochemical compounds in the Mistletoe plant leaf, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol, tannins, steroid, and saponins. These phytochemical compounds are found to be antimicrobial active agents. The efficiency of this plant in the treatment of various diseases necessitated the present work in order to identify the classes of natural products present in the leaf of the plant. These pharmacological values of this plant in herbal medicine and as a base for the development of new drugs.  

   

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