Phosphorus is usually present in natural water as phosphate and is an essential element of life, phosphate can come from fertilizers, human or animal wastes, soaps or detergents and industrial waste.[1] When too much phosphorus becomes available, plant grows rapidly.[1] Phosphate that enter a stream may cause algae to multiply and grow quickly, this may result in an algae bloom. Algae bloom are thick layers of green slime that cover the surface of ponds or slow moving stream, algae bloom are harmful to most aquatic organisms.[1] They cause a decrease in the dissolved oxygen level of the water, by  preventing waves and surface of the water from coming into contact with the air which provides the main source of oxygen for the water.[2] Their dark colour absorbs more heat energy from sunlight causing the water temperature to rise.[2] Plants which grow fast, die fast and sink to the bottom, of the water body; are decomposed by bacteria increasing the biological oxygen demand (BOD). All these factors combined to cause oxygen level in the water to decrease rapidly. This can result in fish kill and the death of many aquatic organism.[2]

AIMS OF STUDY Ihiala local government and Uli town could be said to be a lowland area and a non-industrialized area, but the establishment of the Anambra State University has brought about rapid development as well as population explosion As a result, it has been suspected that there are certain activities that may bring pollution in the source  of water in Ihiala and Uli town e.g. phosphate pollution. However, it becomes imperative and important to assess these major sources of water pollution by phosphate (Atamiri river) in anambra State and to know the level of their pollution either they are good for the domestic purpose or not, and how they could be subjected to the treatment so as to avert the various adverse health implications. It is very important to analyse solvent water because it contain a large number of phosphate or pollutant which are necessary to be checked before the water is used for any sperciic purpose.WATER Water is a major chemical component of the earths surface. It is the only liquid that most organism ever encounter. We alternately take it for granted because of its ubiquity and blend nature or marvel at its unusual and fascinating properties. At the centre of this fascination is the role of water as the medium of life (Garret and Gresham and Gresham 1999) over 90% of the weight of any cell is composed of water and all the metabolic processes or reactions associated are based on it (Nester et. al., 1998) over 90% of the weight of any cell is composed of water and all the metabolic processes or reaction associated are based on it (Nester et. al., 1998). Water is containing hydrogen, oxygen with a variety of dissolved and suspended substance. Water must therefore be analysed and assessed to determine its physiological and technological acceptability for intended purposes

1.1  WATER POLLUTIONWater pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses it.[1] When humans drink polluted water, it often has serious effects on their health. Water pollution can also make water unsuitable for the desired use.[1]Phosphates are major source of pollution in lakes, stream and high phosphate level support over-production of algae and water weeds.[2] However many of us have misconception regarding source of polluting phosphate and many home owners unknowingly contribute to the problem lawn and garden fertilizers often are implicated as the major source of phosphate pollution. However when phosphate are applied to soil, they quickly bind to soil particles. Soil bound phosphate contribute to pollution only when soil erosion occurs.[3]

1.2  SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTIONWater pollution is usually caused by human activities, different human sources add to the pollution of water. There are two major of sources.

Point sources are sources that discharge pollutants at specific locations through pipeline or sewers into the surface water example factories, sewage treatment plants, underground mines, oil wells, oil tankers and agriculture.[5] Non point sources are sources that can not be traced to a single site of discharge example acid deposition from the air, traffic  pollutant that are spread through rivers and pollutant that enter the water through ground water. Non point pollution is hard to control because the perpetrators can not be traced.[5]

1.3  EFFECTs OF PHOSPHATE ON WATERPhosphate plays an important role in cell activities. It has been shown that phosphate regulates water transport and glucose metabolism.[5] An increase in phosphate concentration is capable of causing a rise in oxidative metabolism in water body. Phosphate is an important ingredient in many soaps and detergent due to its powerful cleaning activities.[5] Phosphate emits a bad odour, it makes swimming difficult and more complicated water for drinking. Phosphate ion in water can definitely cause serious health problem in infant under 6 months of age when phosphate water is used to mix infant formula.[5] The excess phosphate can interfere with the ability of the protein (hemoglobin) to carry oxygen in babies’ blood.[5] This can cause babies to suffocate even though their lungs are receiving sufficient oxygen.


Use as NPK fertilizer Used as binder Used as indicator of pollution Used as bloom, etc


Phosphate enter stream may cause algae to multiply and grow quickly. This may result in an algae bloom Algae bloom are thick layers of green slime that cover the surface of pond or slow moving stream. Algae bloom are harmful to most aquatic organism. They cause a decrease in the dissolved oxygen level of the water They prevent waves and the surface of the water from coming into contact with air which provides the main source of oxygen for the water. Total phosphate is used as an indicator of pollution from run-off in agricultural areas or domestic sewage.

Project Topics   Project Topics and Materials   


Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing