THE ROLE OF LOCUST OF CONTROL ON THE START-UP INTENTION OF HIGHER INSTITUTION STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF LOCUST OF CONTROL ON THE START-UP INTENTION OF HIGHER INSTITUTION STUDENTS IN NIGERIA 

2.1   UNDERSTANDING OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION  

The previous research has investigated the various economic and psychological motivations of individuals to seek self-employment (Banmol, 1990, Eisenhover, 1995, Douglas and Shepherd, 2000). The motivation to engage in entrepreneurial behaviour has generally been investigated in terms of entrepreneurial intentions, with intention conceptualized as being a function of beliefs that in turn can lead to subsequent behaviour. In general, the greater the intention, the stronger is the motivation to engage in entrepreneurial behaviour (Ajzen 1991). Numbers of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between an individual’s personal characteristics and subsequent intention (for example, Shapero 1982, Ajzen 1987, Bird, 1988). Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour (1991) suggests three keys attitude that predict intentions, these being attitudes towards the act, social norms and perceived behavioural control. Krueger and Brazeal (1994) suggest that the perceived behavioural control construct overlaps with the self-efficacy construct of Bandura (1986) and outlined a model of potential entrepreneurship that incorporated entrepreneurial intentions, Basing their model on Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour and Shapero's model’s of the entrepreneurial event (Shapero, 1982). Their model included the potential for both enterprise development and corporate ventures and was compressed of three constructs beings :

Perceived desirability Perceived feasibility Propensity to act.

The perceived desirability was seen to be related to intrinsic rewards associated with entrepreneurship and includes the attitude towards the act and social norms. (Kreuger and Brazeal (1994). Perceived desirability is related to the motivational factors to engage in entrepreneurial behaviour and can therefore be considered a function of entrepreneurial attitude held by the individuals. Perceived feasibility on the other hands, is related to individual perceptions of their ability to implement the required behaviour Krueger (1993), cites persuasive evidence, that perceived credibility, perceived desirability and prosperity to act explain over half the variance in intentions towards entrepreneurship, with feasibility perceptions being the most influential’s. An alternative model of entrepreneurial intentions was proposed by Bird (1988). Based on established theory in cognitive psychology, the model suggest that an individuals entrepreneurial intentions is based on a combination of personal contextual factors, personal factors includes prior experience as an entrepreneur, personal characteristics and abilities while contextual factors consists of social, political and economic variables. An individual’s intention is further structured by both rational and analytic thinking (goal-directed behaviour and intuitive or holistic thinking (vision). Boyd and Vozikis (1994) expand on this model to incorporate the perceived behavioural control aspect of Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour through the inclusion of the concept of self-efficacy. Perceived behavioural control describes the perceived ease or difficulty of performing behaviour and as pointed out by Ajzen’s (1991) is closely related to the concept of self-efficacy. They also proposed self-efficacy as an important explanatory variable in determining the strength entrepreneurial intentions and the likelihood that those intentions will result in entrepreneurial actions. The reversed model of Boyd and Vozikis (1994) based on Bird’s (1998) model suggest that intentions are a function of self efficacy in addition to attitudes and perceptions regarding the creation of a new venture through rational and intuitive thought processes.2.2   LOCUS OF CONTROL AND ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION Locus of control is the degree in which the individual believes that the reinforcements are dependent on his behaviour. This individual believes that the accomplishment of goal or purpose depends on his own ability and actions rather than luck or other people’s efforts (Kuip and overhaul, 2003). The empirical evidence shows that small business entrepreneurs are more oriented at the internal level than population in general (Ket Vries, 1977, Begley and Boyd, 1987, Beverland and Lockshin 2001). Brockhaus (1980) longitudinal study suggests the existence of a positive correlation between orientation to locus of control and entrepreneurial success. In another study Brockhaus and Horwitz (1986) reinforce that locus of control could distinguish entrepreneurs who are successful from those who are unsuccessful. Robinson et al (1991) state that internal control leads to a positive entrepreneurial attitude and most students who receive entrepreneurial formation may develop a higher level of control and self-efficiency.

2.3    RISK TAKING AND ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS       This variable refers to risk acceptance when entering an activity, that is, it is related to the probability of an activity having less than 100% success (Kuip and Verheul, 2003). Even if risk-taking is often mentioned as a determinant of entrepreneurial intention, several empirical studies suggest that small business entrepreneurs do not have a positive attitude towards risk and they do not consider themselves as risk-takers, (Baron, 1998) nor do they seen to differ from other groups, in more objectives test on risk-taking (Brockhaus), (1980). according to Mc Clelland (1961) and Bellu (1988) Entrepreneurs seem slightly less attracted to take risks in situations known as pure shift games. Entrepreneur risk-taking may be specific or monetary. Davidsson (1989) asserts that if the aspirations are sufficient accomplished. Entrepreneurs may simply stop taking risks. However, risk-taking and acceptance of uncertainty is something that can be slowly modified if desired. Thus, it is still not clear in literature if there is a relationship between risk-taking propensity and Entrepreneurial intention neither the nature of such relationship.

2.4    SELF-CONFIDENCE AND ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION The high level of self confidence has been suggested by many studies as an entrepreneur’s standard characteristic. In reality, this characteristic emerges constantly in a compilation of empirical studies states by Davidsson (1989). Ho and Kol (1992) refers that self confidence is an entrepreneurial characteristic and that it is relate to other psychological characteristics, such as Locus of control, propensity to take risk and Tolerance of ambiguity. Robinson et al, (1991) have found entrepreneur to have a higher degree to self-confidence relative to non-entrepreneurs. 

   

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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