TRAINING MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN AKWA IBOM STATE
The training of Manpower Development and Employee Performance in an Organization was studied with The Ministry of Finance in Akwa Ibom State as a reference point. Staffs of the Ministry were used as subject for the study. Three research questions were raised and tested. A sample of 150 staff form the Ministry of Finance in Akwa Ibom State used. Instrument used in gathering data was questionnaire on identifying and determining manpower needs in an organization, Manpower needs in manufacturing and marketing organizations and their influence or problems on the training of Manpower Development and Employee Performance. Analysis of data was carried out using simple percentage. The result shows that identifying and determining Manpower needs, training Manpower Development and Planning as well as services oriented influenced employer performance in an organization. This is to say that training of Manpower Development and Employee Performance has a significant influence on the input and output of an Organization.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background of the Study
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 The Purpose of the Study
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Identification /Determination of Manpower Needs in an Organization
2.3 Training of Manpower Development and Employee Performance in Historical Perspective
2.4 Manpower Needs in Manufacturing and marketing Organizations
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Area of Study
3.4 Population of the Study
3.6 Validation of the Instrument
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
3.8 Administration of the Instrument
3.9 Statistical Treatment of Data or Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Presentation of Data Analysis
4.2 Data Presentation
4.3 Analysis of Major Research Questions
4.4 Discussion of Result of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is regarded as a foundation for any country’s development. Humans are equipped intellectually, physically, spiritually and technologically to face their socio-cultural and other problems realistically through the life long complex process known as education. Education provides the necessary skills for effective functioning within the environment and the survival, growth and manpower development of the society. In the National policy on Education (1998), it is regarded as an instrument par excellence.
This situation has encouraged the government and every organization to train their manpower for the much need development and productivity of their firms and the nation at large. Organization and government depend or rely on the training of manpower and employee performance system for the perpetuation and development of effective and efficient personnel for the growth of the economy. The increase and large publicity on awareness campaign for the workshops and seminars on government personnel and organization workers as well as large enrollment of pupils at all levels of education are intended to justify the nation’s policy of providing literate manpower and self reliant individuals for development.
The reason of manpower in an organization is to ensure the accuracy of the right numbers of employee, the right level of skills suitable for the right job and also performing the right activities in order to achieve the aim of an organization. The socio-economic status of an organization seems to have a far reaching influence on the variability of the training of manpower and employee performance Leung and Lam (1998) noted that, socio-economic status of an organization plays vital roles in determining and identifying manpower needs and employee performance.
The influence of socio-economic status of an organization cannot be overemphasized as this could dictate the type and quality of workshop/seminars their employee attend, the provision of necessary training materials and timely payment of salaries. These and many more could influence manpower development and employee performance in an organization. In line with Ezewu (1993), it is generally observed, that, employee from organization of higher socio-economic status perform better than those of the lower standard. Datta (1984) in a similar view noted that workers who perform well in their duties are from organization of upper socio-economic status. It was on the basis of these assumptions that the interest to undertake this study was aroused.
Many researchers tend to pay much attention to the effect of training manpower development and employee performance than other factors. This is probably because the organization is the initial seed-bed of the employees performance and if an organization status does not have a sound base, there is every like hood that the employee’s performance might be adversely affected.
There seems to exist some interplay between the employee’s performance and the nature of an organization. According to Blairs (1975) factors within the organizational structure should be put together to ensure effective training and development of manpower needs as to give optimal level of peters (1979) is of this view, when he says that certain parameters within the organization such as welfare packages, incentives prompt payment of bills and organization socio-economic status help training of manpower to be successful. Obemeta (1981) point out that, one of the reasons for low employee performance is lack of workshops and materials for training manpower development. This research work therefore, aimed at training manpower development and employee performance in an organization and it effects.
Training manpower development and employee performance in an organization has become a global crisis. Apart from those Asian countries and regions where economies are on the rise, the lack of manpower has swept into every corner of the world, and the prospect for the future are not optimistic Zhong Shu N04 September, 1994 China Africa. One of the problems facing developing countries is how to trained manpower development and employee performance from their graduates and skill professionals. Nigerians problems are more sympathetic in establishment of industry.
In effect of looking at manpower we may ask the following question: what is manpower? What kind of manpower does an organization need, in what numbers do they need? How many are available? What changes are there in labour market which can affect the need of manpower? All these are questions which need to be considered when deliberating on manpower needs or development and employee performance in an organization. Therefore, all these can not be achieved only from training as there are other variables that have direct or indirect influence on the employee performance which can be psychological in nature and as such this research has become imperative to investigate the effects of some of these variables.
1.2 NEED OF THE STUDY
The study was aimed at training manpower development and employee performance in an organization. A case study of Ministry of Finance, Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the study sought to find how organization structure or background, organization socio-economic status and organization changes in labour market, influence the training of manpower and employee performance.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is ideal for an organization to trained their manpower development in view of the fact that employee performance is the ultimate goal of nay organization. But it has been observed in an organization that employee whose employer are of lower economic status seem to show less interest in organization activities. The alarming poor achievement and lack of training manpower development by firms and organizations at a time when much emphasis is attached to workshop and seminars is an issue of serious concern. Part of the problems affecting employee performance in any of the organization could be attributed to organization structure or background and socio-economic status (income).
The problem of this study therefore was to investigate the training of manpower development and employee performance in an organization. A case study of Ministry of Finance, Akwa Ibom State
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are as follows
1. To investigate and know the extent to which the training of Manpower Development and Employee Performance in an organization is important to Nigeria economy.
2. To determine why training of Manpower Development and Employee Performance in an Organization is unavoidable in the society of ours.
3. To assess what role has the government been able to play in order to training Manpower Development as well as Employee Performance in an Organization.
4. To offer recommendations and suggestions based on the findings of the study.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The aim or major motive and intention of writing this project is to investigate and know or create total awareness on training manpower development and employee performance in an organization. However, to shed more light on these word Training, Manpower, Development, Employee, Performance, and Organization. Nevertheless, it will help both the government and private sector to bring out or reach out with a lasting solution to Training Manpower Development and Employee Performance in an organization. Therefore, this study is of benefit to future researchers on how Training Manpower Development and Employee Performance in an organization can help to generate greater productivity and efficiency.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint, time and their limiting factors made it difficult to extend the research beyond Ministry of Finance Akwa Ibom State. Owing to the above factors, the sample of the study was thus limited to selected staff in the ministry of finance.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. How does the organization structure influence the training of manpower development and employee performance.
2. What is the influence of organization socio-economic status on the training of Manpower Development and Employee Performance?
3. What changes are there in labour market which can influence or affect the need of Manpower development and employee performance?
4. What kind of manpower does an organization need, in what numbers do they need?
5. Why is training of manpower development and employee performance in an organization needed?
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Terms used with the context of the study were defined thus:
1. Training: A course of special exercises, practice etc, to keep sportsmen or employee healthy and fit for a test of skills.
2. Manpower: The number of workmen needed for a certain type of work, as in industry, the army or police. The work power supplied by man rather than machines. It is also a measure of the power of one man at work.
3. Development: The act or action of developing or the state of being developed; a gradual unfolding.
4. Employee: A person who is employee.
5. Performance: The action or act of performing something especially very well of people or machines. It is also the ability to do something.
6. Organization: A group of people with a special purpose, such as a club or business.
7. Ministry: A government department led by a minster
8. Finance: The science of controlling public money.
9. Socio-Economic Status: This implies a persons position in any given group or society as determine by wealth, occupation and social class.
10. Academic Performance: This is the degree of achievement in test and examination of an employee. In other words, it means the ability of Manpower to show understanding or not in a training task and prove same in any written test, training, examination or practical assessment to merit either pass or fail in an organization.
11. Need: The condition of lacking or wanting something necessary or very useful.
12. Determination: Firm intention the ability to make firm decisions and act in accordance with them strong will to succeed.
13. Manufacturing: The act of manufacturing to make or produce by machinery especially in large quantities.
14. Marketing: The various activities by which goods are sold, supplied and advertised.
15. Status: A condition that determines one’s formal position; position in relation to others, it is also known as high social position, recognition and respect by others.
The purpose for this study was to determine the training Manpower Development and Employee Performance in an organization. Training of Manpower has been one of the pressing problems that have greatly affected the economy of any nation. Since the problem of training manpower development and employee performance among organizations is not new in the field of educational research, many studies have been carried out, but considerable numbers of literatures and papers have been reviewed. Hence, related literature on this subject therefore has been profound and vast. Some of the studies were quite intriguing. Some were particularly concerned with sporting factors that aided poor employee performance. Such studies have however been helpful in a way that they point to why some employee could not perform or achieve their goals positively thereby opting out as a result.
In the reviewing the related literature for this study, the following areas have been mapped out for review; organization background and employee’s performance, organization income (socio-economic status) and training Manpower development; Organization changes in labour market and Manpower needs in manufacturing and marketing, and summary. 2.1 ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND AND EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE The organization structure or background could influence the employee’s performance and training. If the management (managers) of any firms or organization did not attend training, workshops or seminars, they would find it difficult to send their employees to training and also to provide them with some necessary incentive and motivation, and these will affect manpower needs or employee’s performance. Major banks (1979) in his study found out that the organizational structure cum background ha s a unique relationship with training manpower development in an organization. In the same vein, Morris (1972) shows that organization with poor attitude to training of manpower development have their employee as lacking technical know-how. Jegede (1984) also explains that lack of manpower needs in any of the organization can be attributed to organization background and socio-economic status. Musgrave (1979) is of the opinion that companies or organization that fall under the upper and middle classes is of high socio-economic status and are well solidified, they tend to realize the importance of training manpower needs. Moreso, Iniodu (1991), Akpan (1993), and Udofia (1993) are of the view that organization of good standard find it necessary and rewarding to identify, determine and trained their employee with the view to organize workshop, seminars and symposium where technocrats will be involved to show expertise. These will enable the employee to put in maximum performance in the service oriented organization. 2.2 ORGANIZATION INCOME AND TRAINING MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT Henry (1993) opined that employee from a rich organizations find it easy to adjust to training life for effective performance and greater achievement. Eket (1986) observed that employee from poor organizations do not attend the same level of training manpower development as those form wealthy organizations. The differences, according to him, may be due to the availability and provision of training materials in different organizations. Esien (1979) noted that low financial position of any organization have a strong influence on the employee performance in an organization.
Manpower can be said as the total knowledge, skill, creative abilities, talents and attitude of an organization to work force as well as the values, attitude and benefits of the individuals involved in it. The needs for Manpower in an Organization include: To maximize utilization of human resources. To reduce excessive labour turnover and high absenteeism. To meet the challenges of new and changing technology and also new techniques of production..