ENHANCING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF IKOT EKPENE AND ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCILS, AKWA IBOM STATE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Manpower planning and development is an integral part of management which focuses attention on human resources. It is a program that involves projecting and forecasting present personnel functions into the future, it is also concerned with the mobilization of the personnel department towards the achievement of the desired objectives in terms of effective manpower planning and development.
In every organization, planning, and development exercise have a crucial influence upon employees productivity which is the most vital objective of any organization. The clamor of manpower planning and development becomes very imperative because it is the personnel that will get this done. Suffice it so say that, public organization though: run on a loss or profit basis but have to compete with other organizations but only the best survives. In order to survive, these organizations must be effective, and for it to be effective there is need for proper manpower planning and development.
Once an applicant has been selected and placed by his organization, the next step is to transform him to meet the future requirement of the organizations. Such transformation is done by means of training and development, for organizational goals and objectives to be attained; effective, proficient, and adapt human the resource is vital and imperative in every outfit. This is because human beings constitute a vital part of any organization, thus, act as building blocks and backbones of any organization. Resis (1993), affirmed that all activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons that make up these institutions. He said further, that the plants, computers, automated equipment and all other machines that a modern organization uses are unproductive except for human effort and direction, he, therefore, concluded that every aspect of a firm activity is determined by the competence and effectiveness of its human beings. Organizational effectiveness has a very broad and often vague definition, so much that most sources explain the concept by example rather than definition. Basically the effectiveness of a business constitutes its ability to perform a function with optimal levels of input and output, companies use organizational effectiveness to measure any number of things, from the relationship between the employees’ performance and company profit to the correlation between manufacturing processes and production volume. No set parameters exist for organizational effectiveness and it follows no definitive mathematical formula, each organization creates its own method of measuring effectiveness.
Man power planning begins with an analysis. It entails assessing the current status of the manpower within the organization. The analysis is done by taking an inventory of the skills, competencies, and abilities of all personnel in the organization. It also entails accounting for the numbers of departments and the sizes of these departments within the organization. The analysis helps the Human Resources (HR) managers to make informed forecasts about the human resource needs of the organization.
For Fajana (2002), the effectiveness and success of an organization lies on the people who form and work within the organization. The observation of Onuka (2006) implies that it is the developed human capital of the nation that constitutes its wealth. It follows, therefore, that employees’ performance in respect of achieving organizational goals and success is the function of the quantum of the relevant skills and knowledge, and positive work attitude they have been able to acquire from constant manpower development programs whether through committee/ on the job training or in-house training programs or out of work training courses they attended.
Omole (2004) posits that manpower development involves providing learning and development opportunities, making training and intervention and planning, conducting and evaluating training programs. The need for improved productivity in an organization has become a universally accepted phenomenon that depends on efficient and effective manpower development. It has further become necessary in view of modern global advancement, to invest in human capital training and development. Thus, the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized, by implication, therefore, the for organizations to take staff development programs in an organization often manifest tripartite problems of the incompetence development program. Orrbabor(2000) submits that training and development is aimed at developing competence such as technical, human, conceptual, and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organizational growths, while Isyaku (2000) postulates that the process of training and development is a continuous one.
Man is dynamic in nature, the need to be current and relevant in all spheres of human endeavor makes staff development a necessity in order to keep track of current events and methods. The concept of manpower development encompasses organizational subsisting staff training and re-training programs in order to meet up with organizational goals and objectives, as well as the sustaining human resource needs for organizational growth and development. The availability of human capital and its regular development must be combined with effective utilization of all other resources if they were not to be a mirage. Thus, manpower development in an organization is the mainstay of an organization provided it is put to effective use.
Human the resource is very critical to any organizational survival and accomplishment of the desired goals of any organization. However, it has been generally observed that there has been a progressive decline in the ability of the available manpower in Nigeria to cope with the challenges facing many organizations. This the trend could be viewed to have resulted in an inadequate level of skill acquisition by the employees or their inability to keep abreast with the new modern technological development because of the absence of appropriate and sufficient staff training efforts by organizations.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The the disturbing issue in this research is on planning and administering manpower development in the way that organizational effectiveness could be enhanced. The human resources (manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational survival and for the utilization of these available resources to achieve the desired goals.
However, most organizations plan meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resource and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will not be in vain. Not many organizations consider the necessity for a well defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance or they are not able to cope financially with training and development programs, the very few organizations that give thought to this very important aspect of staffing the function do so with a lack of seriousness, all-round attention, and continuity.
It is against this background that the researcher considered the organizational effectiveness through manpower planning and development in the aspect of enhancing effective organizational planning and development in the aspect of enhancing effective organizational performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The the study intends to achieve the following objectives:
1. To examine how organizational effectiveness can be enhanced through manpower planning and development.
2. To identify some techniques of manpower training and development that organizations can adopt for employees’ effectiveness.
3. To assess management commitment to staff development as a catalyst for their effectiveness.
4. To examine the problems associated with manpower planning and development in Nigeria organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated to aid and guide this research study.
1. In what ways can organizational effectiveness be enhanced through manpower planning and development?
2. What are the possible techniques of manpower training and development that organizations can adopt for employee's effectiveness?
3. How will management commitment to staff development be a catalyst for their effectiveness?
4. What are the problems associated with manpower planning and development in Nigeria organizations?
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
As a guide to achieving the purpose of this study, the following hypotheses were formulated.
1. Ho: The ability of employees to achieve goals and objectives in their organization is independent of their development and adequate planning.
Ha: The ability of employees to achieve goals and objectives in their organization is dependent on their development and adequate planning.
2. Ho: poor and ineffective techniques of manpower training and development that organizations adopt cannot affect employee's effectiveness.
Ha: poor and ineffective techniques of manpower training and development that organizations adopt can affect employees' effectiveness.
3. Ho: management’s timely approvals of staff training and development and constant seminars and conferences cannot save as catalyst for their effectiveness.
Ha: management’s timely approvals of staff training and development and constant seminars and conferences can save as catalyst for their effectiveness.
4. Ho: lopsided content in training programs, short supply of instructors and improper funding are not problems associated with manpower planning and development in organizations.
Ha: lopsided content in training programs, short supply of instructors, and proper fundings are problems associated with manpower planning and development in organizations.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The outcome of this study shall be of immense benefit to the following set of persons:
1. Government parastatals: the result of this study shall assist government officials to see the need for effective manpower planning and development in government parastatals. It is in light of this that the researcher through the work intends to look into the factors militating against government parastatals in achieving its set goals. By this, the study will look into the manpower base and quality of staff of the organization and assess the suitability with the aim of developing planning programs to enhance their performance.
2. Researchers: the result of this work will also serve as a guide to other researchers especially those who will be interested in the research of the related topic in the future.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on how to enhance organizational effectiveness through manpower planning and development, using Ikot Ekpene and Essien Udim Local Government Council as a case study.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In carrying out this research, the following constraint were met:
Ø Limited funds which did not allow the researcher to carry out effective research
Ø The uncooperative attitude of the respondents in answering questions
Ø Limited time available for the research to focus on the scope of study adequately
The study of this nature also demands a wider coverage in terms of the study population but the use of Ikot Ekpene and Essien Udim Local Government Councils as a case the study also contributed to the limitations of the study.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The the study was organized into five chapters. Chapter one dealt with the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, the objective of the study, research questions, the significance of the study, the scope of the study, limitations of the study, organization of the study and definition of terms.
Chapter two reviewed the related literature on the subject matter which serves as a a theoretical framework to the various ideas of the different researchers who have undertaken similar research work.
Chapter three showed the various research design and methodology used, for the study, the population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instrumentation, method for data analysis and problems of data collection are stated.
Chapter four showed the data presentation, analysis, and interpretation analysis of research questions, a test of hypotheses, and discussion of findings.
Chapter five made a summary of findings, conclusion, and recommendation based on the findings of the study.
1.10 Definition of Terms
The following are some of the definitions of the terms used in the context of this project work.
Manpower: manpower is defined as those efforts aimed at stimulating opportunities updating skills and adaptability of the workforce and linking jobs and persons more effectively.
Development: development is defined as a process that has to do with the acquisition of skill through the necessary training for proper job performance.
Management: Management is defined as a process of establishing and maintaining a favorable environment both for the optimum achievement of the goal and the minimum contribution of the individual.
Efficiency: The extent to which operative goals can be attained.
Organization: is an entry comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
Effectiveness: The degree to which objectives are achieved and the extent to which targeted problems are solved.
Manpower Planning: Is defined as the process of collecting and analyzing data pertaining to the number and kind of employees with required skills that an organization need at the right time and at the the right place to perform jobs that are beneficial to the objective of the organization..