Researchers in the building sector have indicated that between 50 to 60 percent of the total construction input goes into building materials. As a result, there is an urgent need to address the high cost of these products which is said to have slowed down the growth of the building and construction sector in Nigeria. Building materials constitute the largest single input in housing construction. While Adedeji (2010) observed that about sixty (60) percent of the total housing expenditure goes for the purchase of building materials, Arayela (2005) averred that the cost of building materials constitute about 65 percent of the construction cost. Ogunsemi (2010) opined that building materials form the main factors that restrict the supply of housing and ascertained that they account for between 50-60 percent of the cost of buildings.

Thus, Adedeji (2002) rightly observed that one main barrier to the realization of effective housing in Nigeria as revealed in successive government efforts has been the cost of housing in the country. He argued that in the early periods, shelter in Nigeria was easily affordable as building materials were sourced from the immediate environment at affordable costs. Technology also was readily available with commensurate simple techniques. But contact with the outside world through interregional and international training of professionals in foreign countries as occasioned by colonization brought changes to tastes and hence outlook to house forms. These changes rendered the undeveloped local building materials inadequate while there was an increased demand for exotic ones. Accordingly, Arayela (2002) posited that the modern building industry lays much emphasis on sophisticated building materials and techniques that are expensive and energy-consuming. Though housing delivery efforts have evidently been inhibited by prohibitive costs of building materials, this problem cannot be reasonably and reliably overcome by merely resorting to the use of locally available materials without due considerations to the applicable initiative, the cost of processing, and sustainability of the local materials. One of the most important components of a sustainable building is material efficiency. Correct selection of building materials can be performed by taking into account their complete life span and by choosing products with minimal environmental impacts. For instance, González and Navarro (2006) estimated that the selection of building materials with low environmental impacts can reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by up to 30%. The use of renewable and recycled sources is widely encouraged as the life-cycle of a building and its elements can be closed (Chwieduk, 2003). The major factors that greatly affect the selection of building materials are their costs and social requirements such as thermal comfort, good mechanical properties (strength and durability), aesthetic characteristics, and an ability to construct quickly. Ideally, the combination of all environmental, economic, and social factors can give a clear description of a material, and thus helps in a decision-making process regarding the cost of the materials suitable for buildings (Abeysundara, et, al.,2009).  Nigerians would continue to pay more for accommodation in major cities until the cost of building materials is subsidized through probably through tax reduction. The instability in the price of building materials was posited as a direct result of high taxes which in turn impacts the cost of accommodation in major cities across the country. According to Arayela (2002), many completed housing estates had remained unoccupied because of the high rental and sale prices attached to them as against the meager income of the average Nigerian workers. He also added that if the government can revitalize our industrial base, the cost of building materials will come down and many more people would be able to build houses. He, therefore, urged the Federal Government to provide tax relief for local manufacturers and importers of building materials in order to reduce the high cost of accommodation in major cities.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Building materials have been playing an important role in the construction industry—they are those materials put together in erecting or constructing structures, no field of engineering is conceivable without their use (Akanni, 2006; Udosen & Akanni, 2010). Building materials contribute immensely to the quality and cost of housing, from what is used in the foundation to the materials for roofing and finishes, while the building materials industry is an important contributor to the national economy of any nation as its output governs both the rate and the quality of construction work. The cost of building materials poses a significant threat to both the construction industry and people aspiring to own houses (Anosike, 2009; Mekson, 2008; Mohammed, 2008; Njoku, 2007); for example, a bag of cement, which is valued at Ν1,350.00 in 2006, goes as high as Ν1,850.00 in 2009 (Anosike, 2009) depicting about 37% increment; the bag goes as high as Ν2,000.00 in 2015 during peak season (field survey 2015). Supporting this view, Jagboro, and Owoeye (2004) earlier established that an increase in the prices of building materials has multiplier effects on housing development while Idoro and Jolaiya (2010) affirmed that many projects were not completed on time due to the cost of materials, which have been on the increase. Besides timely completion, high prices of building materials form a crucial constraint to improving housing conditions in Nigeria (United Nations Centre for Human Settlement [UNCHS], 1993). In spite of the past studies on the cost of building materials in Nigeria, little is publicized about the implications of the rise in cost on the construction industry; most literature (Jagboro & Owoeye, 2004; Mekson, 2008; Njoku, 2007; Oladipo & Oni, 2012) has concentrated on identifying the causes with little emphasis on the implications; hence, the research seeks to provide information on the effect of cost of building materials on housing development in Nigeria. 1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The following are the objectives of this study:

To examine the effect of building materials cost on housing development in Nigeria. To determine the factors responsible for the high cost of building materials in Nigeria. To proffer solutions that will reduce the cost of building material to ensure adequate housing development in Nigeria.


What is the effect of building materials cost on housing development in Nigeria? What are the factors responsible for the high cost of building materials in Nigeria? What are the solutions that can reduce the cost of building material to ensure adequate housing development in Nigeria?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS HO: Cost of building materials does not affect housing development in Nigeria. HA: Cost of building materials does affect housing development in Nigeria. 1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The following are the significance of this study:

Findings from this study will educate the general public on the current market cost of building materials in Nigeria and its effect on sustainable housing development in Nigeria. The results of this study will sensitize the policymakers and the government on the need to make and implement policies that will reduce the cost of building materials in Nigeria thereby encouraging massive housing development all over the country. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently if applied will go to an extent to provide a new explanation to the topic.

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study on the effect of building materials cost on housing development in Nigeria will cover the current prices of building material in Nigeria focusing on how it has influenced the provision of affordable housing for the Nigerian populace. LIMITATION OF STUDY Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview). Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted to the research work.

REFERENCES Abeysundara UG, Babel S, Gheewala S (2009). A matrix in life cycle perspective for selecting sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka. Build. Environ. 44: 997-1004 Adedeji YMD (2002). Achieving affordable housing in South-West Nigeria through Local building material. J. Environ. Technol. 1(2): 15- 21, Adedeji YMD (2010). Technology and standardized composite cement fibers for housing in Nigeria. J. Niger. Inst. Archit. 1: 19-24. Akanni, P. O. (2006, August). Small scale building material production in the context of the informal economy. The Professional Builders, pp. 13-18. Anosike, P. (2009, April 6). Nigerian groans under the high cost of building material. The Daily Sun, pp. 38-39. Arayela O. (2005). Laterite bricks: before now and hereafter. Inaugural lecture series 40 delivered at Federal University of Technology, Akure, 5-15. Chwieduk D (2003). Towards sustainable-energy buildings. Appl. Energy, 76: 211-217. González MJ, Navarro JG (2006). Assessment of the decrease of CO2 emissions in the construction field through the selection of materials: Practical case study of three houses of low environmental impact. Build. Environ. 41: 902-909 Jagboro, G. O., & Owoeye, C. O. (2004). A model for predicting the prices of building materials using the exchange rate in Nigeria. The Malaysian Surveyor, 5(6), 9-14. Mekson, J. (2008, August). Prices change of building materials in developing communities in Nigeria. The Professional Builders, pp. 21-27. Mohammed, H. Y. (2008, December 25). Nigeria: Builders groan on the rising cost of building materials. Daily Trust, p. 29. Njoku, J. (2007, April 9). Grappling with the escalating cost of construction materials. The Vanguard, pp. 36-37. Ogunsemi DR (2010). The use of enough quality and quantity materials for building a durable edifice. A Lecture delivered at Campus Transformation Network, Federal University of Technology, Akure Udosen, J. U., & Akanni, P. O. (2010). A factorial analysis of building material wastage associated with construction projects. Journal of Civil and Environmental Systems Engineering, 11(2), 81-90. United Nations Centre for Human Settlement. (1993). Building materials for housing: Appropriate intermediate, cost-effective building materials, technology, and transfer mechanism for housing delivery. Retrieved from programmes/housingpolicy/documents/HS.C.14.7.htm



Click Here To Get The Complete Project »


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.