HEPATOPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF SENA TORA LEAVE EXTRACT ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

 HEPATOPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF SENA TORA LEAVE EXTRACT ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

CHAPTER ONE   1.0     INTRODUCTION  

Many of the developing countries including African countries like Nigeria practice traditional medicine as its main source of health care. This traditional medicine is normally gotten from plant origin [Rehan Ahmad et al, 2008, Stephen bent, 2008].Today nearly 88 percent of the global populations switch to plant derived medicines as their first line of defence for maintaining health and combating diseases [Kintzois et al,2006]. Presently there are about 60 types of medicinal plants that have been recognised in primary health care and are classified according to their pharmacological actions such as peptic ulcers, anti flatulence, laxative, anti diarrhoea and anti hepatic[Viomolos et al,2003]. However in future the discovery of novel therapeutic agents will be only dependent on plant origin [Perulmalsamy et al, 1999].        Senna tora is an example of traditional medicine with pharmacological actions as anticholesterolemic,antispasmodic,carninitative, emolliants, ophthalmic and purgative [Polunin and Stanton,1984,Yeung,1985,Manandhar, 2002]. It can be cardiotonic, antiperiodic, anthelminitic and expectorant  and can also be used in treating  cogh,leprosy ,ring worm ,colic,flatulence,constipation and other disorders[Nature serve,2007]. Senna tora formally regarded as cassia tora is capable of suppressing  the production of prostaglandins and other inflammatory agonists such as cytokines, histamine, kinin and free radical.manila,1998 buttressed his observations confirming its use in the treatment of constipation, edema and liver protection in Korea.        Liver, the largest internal organ of the human body performs more than five hundred functions, all of which are very vital to life. The liver can regenerate or grow back cells that have been destroyed by short term injury or disease, but if the liver is damaged repeatedly over a long period of time, it may undergo irreversible changes which permanently interferes with its function. Carbon tetrachloride is a toxic substance that interrupts the liver and its functions. This is to say that it damages the liver when ingested.CCL4 is stable in the presence of air and light, it is also inflammable. Despite its toxic effect on the liver, it is useful as grain fumigant ,pesticide etc. Equilibrium of the body fluids and secretions are altered as a result of carbon tetrachloride. For instance lipid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism and  biotransformation  functions of the liver are terminated or altered in the presence of CCL4.Thus carbon tetrachloride is lethal. The liver produces some enzyme such as aspartate amino transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase,gamma glutamyl transsferase etc which catalyses the biochemical activities of  the body, and on the attack of CCL4 to the liver ,these enzymes will not be produced. Free radicals are highly reactive compounds with uneven number of electrons in their outermost orbit. This can react with cellular compounds like unsaturated fatty acids and can generate new free radicals which result in irreversible biochemical injury like membrane damage, apotosis and cell necrosis. Antioxidants scavenge  free radicals  and stop the subsequent reactions hence protecting the macromolecules and cellular environment from toxicity and degeneration [Hong B.O. Shao et al, 2008].The oxygen consumption inherent in cell growth leads to the generation of series of reactive oxygen species [ROS].The ROS are molecules such as superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals[OH]. ROS may be very damaging  attacking  the lipids of cell membrane and DNA mutation which may further propagate the propagation of many diseases[Valontao et al 2002,Gulcin et al 2003]. Reactive oxygen  species are continuously  produced during normal Physiological  events  and are removed by antioxidants defence mechanism [Buyukokuroglu et al,2001]. Many results have shown that some of the cassia species have acquired antimicrobial substances and antioxidant activities.

1.1     AIMS OF THE RESEARCH

The aim of this research is to find out hepatoproductive effects of sena tora leave extract on carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity. 

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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