A STUDY OF THE NUTRITIVE PROFILE OF A VEGETABLE, PIPER METHYSTICUM, LOCALLY KNOWN AS AWA

 A STUDY OF THE NUTRITIVE PROFILE OF A VEGETABLE, PIPER METHYSTICUM, LOCALLY KNOWN AS AWA

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1       Herbs  

An herb is a plant that is valued for flavor, scent, medicinal or other qualities other than its food value (John, 2000). They are used in cooking, as medicines, and for spiritual purposes. Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary and medicinal usage. General usage differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs (John, 2000).  Herbs are “generally recognized as safe” by the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), at least at concentrations commonly found in foods (Kaefer et al, 2008). Medicinal plants continue to provide valuable therapeutic agents, both in modern medicine and in traditional system (Reaven, 1983). The leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark (cambium), berries and sometimes the pericarp or other portions of the plant might be considered in medicinal or spiritual use (John, 2000). In the medicinal uses, herbs (plants) contain phytochemicals that have effects on the body (John, 2000). Until the 20th century, (Sanusi et al, 2008) most medicinal remedies all over the world were obtained from plants. For example, purple forglove was found to be helpful in dropsy, the opium poppy for pain, cough, and diarrhea, and the cinchona bark for fever. With the emergence of chemical and pharmacological methods in the 20th century, it became possible to identify the active ingredients in the plants and study them. Furthermore, once the chemistry was understood, it was possible to synthesize related molecules with more desirable properties. According to (Sodimu et al, 2008), today, the two most effective and widely accepted drugs for the treatment of malaria today emerged through herbal traditional medicine viz: Quinine from the bark of the Peruvian cinchona tree and artemisinin from the Chinese antipyretic Artemisia annua L. Hence, throughout history, the medicinal benefits of herbs are quoted (John, 2000). There may be some effects when consumed in the small levels that typify culinary "spicing", and some herbs are toxic in larger quantities. For instance, some types of herbal extract, such as the extract of St. John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum) or of awa (Piper methysticum) can be used for medical purposes to relieve depression and stress (John, 2000). However, (Milner et al, 2008), large amounts of these herbs may lead to toxic overload that may involve complications, some of a serious nature, and should be used with caution. One herb-like substance, called Shilajit, may actually help a lower blood glucose level which is especially important for those suffering from diabetes. In comparative terms, (Metuh, 1987) the western idea of medicine and the traditional African conception differ in scope. In the traditional sense, it refers to a wholistic view of well being, while in the western sense, it is strictly limited to bodily therapeutic purposes. Nze in his own comparative analysis of medicine underscores the peculiarity difference, which defines the traditional wholistic perception of medicine (Metuh, 1987). According to (John, 2000), modern pharmaceuticals had their origins in crude herbal medicines, and to this day, many drugs are still extracted as fractionate/isolate compounds from raw herbs and then purified to meet pharmaceutical standards. Some herbs are used not only for culinary and medicinal purposes, but also for psychoactive and/or recreational purposes; one such herb is cannabis (John, 2000). However, many herbs and their bioactive components are being investigated for potential disease prevention and treatment at concentrations which may exceed those commonly used in food preparation herbs (Milner et al, 2008). It is therefore imperative to identify any potential safety concerns associated with the use of various dosages which range from doses commonly used for culinary purposes to those used for medicinal purposes since there are often unclear boundaries between the various uses of herbs (Milner et al, 2008). Other uses of herbs other than medicinal uses are: Sacred uses: According to “Chinese herbal medicine” Herbs are used in many religions for example, myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) and   frankincense (Boswellia spp) in Christianity, the Nine Herbs Charm in Anglo-Saxon paganism, the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) by the Tamils, holy basil or tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Hinduism, and many Rastafarians consider cannabis (Cannabis sp) to be a holy plant (John, 2000). Siberian Shamans also used herbs for spiritual purposes. Plants may be used to induce spiritual experiences, such as vision quests in some Native American cultures (John, 2000). The Cherokee Native Americans use sage and cedar for spiritual cleansing and smudging. Uses as pest control: Herbs are also known amongst gardeners to be useful for pest control. Mint, spearmint, peppermint, and pennyroyal are a few such herbs. These herbs when planted around a house's foundation can help keep unwanted critters away such as flies, mice, ants, fleas, moth and tick amongst others. They are not known to be harmful or dangerous to children or pets, or any of the house's fixtures (John, 2000).1.2       Objectives of studyPiper methysticum being a plant used for its medical and social purposes (Johnston et al, 2008), may have been of great benefits in human health due to its biochemical, pharmacological, and medical properties. This study, therefore, was undertaken to evaluate the trace – element composition of the leaf extract.

Project Topics   Project Topics and Materials 

.

Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.