CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION    1.0     Introduction   

Many will attest to it that the Jos crisis vividly exemplifies or by locus classicus describes a rancorous experience against religious intolerance. In a nation bound with vast geographic and vast ethnic and religious differences, these religious differences aid conflict which is a basis for showing religious biases and prejudices with the adherents being too fundamentalistic and extremists in nature.

            Naturally, the psycho-social description of man shows him as genetically selfish, fighting for his own interest alone. However, this does not necessarily explain or construe the religious nature of man. With various descriptions of the religious nature of man especially Africans, Mbiti has described him as ‘notoriously religious’.1 Maybe this can adequately give a hypothesis for action that is behind religious conflict in Nigeria. But how rational or how plausible is it for two notable religions to fight against each other, killing and giving psychological aftermath or psycho-negative effect since God can neither be described as a Christian nor a Muslim?

            However, the underlying principle for religious conflict is not purely religious but also political as we have seen in the last six years with the encounter with the Islamic fundamentalist known as Boko Haram.  The episodes of mass killing structured or engineered by this extremism are enormous. However, all written above has not defined what religious conflict is but has only given us an introduction to what the researcher tends to discuss.

1.1       Background to the study

The quest to understand what religious conflict starts from the breaking down of the two separately from the basis for a rational clarification. But we must understand that the basis for a religious conflict is one of the different ideologies, beliefs, values, etc. The social network coordinated by belief system is so strong that as it can make heal, so it can be used to champion a cause of war or struggle. This was what Dawkins tried to explain when he elucidated that,  

Imagine … a world with no religion. Imagine no suicide bomber, no 9/11, no 7/7, no crusades, no witch-hunts, no gunpowder plot, no Indian partition, no Israeli/Palestinian wars, no Serb/Croat/Muslim massacres, no persecution of Jews as Christ-killers’…2

In defining religion, Dawkins noted that it is a false, a delusion similar to scotosis or insanity. He said, ‘when one person suffers from a delusion, it is called insanity, when many suffer from a delusion it is called religion’.3 But is religion truly a delusion? If it is, then what do we mean by delusion? ‘It is a persistent false belief held in the face of strong contradictory evidence, especially as a symptom of psychiatric disorder’.4 However, what is important to note here, is that it is the belief in religion that serves as the mechanism of engineering the prominent attacks against the other religion. But is the belief the only thing embedded in religion? According to Wood,

For a group or philosophy to be protected as a religion under current human right legislation in the United Kingdom, it must be able to demonstrate a combination of (a) belief and/or conviction, (b) practice and/or ethics, and (c) a sense of belonging or community. Belief and practice are separated in this definition, and the element of belonging is interesting because it recognizes the role of social relationships in religion.5

But what we call the sense of belonging must be as a result of the belief that has been binding on the individual which makes him react to another since they both belong to a particular religion. So ‘Belief’ is fundamental and exerts great strength and psychological strength upon the individual in question. Religion as a word is used as something relating to religion. Religion, therefore, pertains to God and belief, it is derived from;

 The term “religio” refers to four Latin verbs, relegere, religare, reeligere, relinguere. … Religion could be defined as reading over of things or phenomena, which pertain to the worship of God (relegere). It could be defined as a bond, which binds the visible, and the invisible worlds (religare). It could be taken as a repeated choice of what has been neither lost nor neglected. Being created (first election), man is chosen again to enter into a relationship with the creator (reeligere). Religion is also considered as an act of leaving certain things in order to be submitted to others, maybe to a supreme being (relinquere).6

                        But all these etymological sayings are not enough to explain the diverse religion of the present with the atheistic, Godless philosophical religions and the pantheistic religions, therefore, “…all these ways are nominal and etymological definitions; they are important but not sufficient”7. And even the etymological definitions were words of various individuals and therefore can be criticized as ‘subjective views’ which is in negative to the objective word called religion. In a nutshell, it should be noted that religion is multi-dimensional and therefore, cannot be pinned down into a definition. 

Looking to the other side of the coin, we see conflict as a disagreement, between two or more parties that can either be physical or psychological. In other words, ‘conflict may be defined as a struggle or contest between people with opposing needs, ideas, beliefs, values, or goals’.8 The words conflict was gotten from the Latin word ‘conflictus’, past participle of confligere which means “to strike together, be in conflict”, from com- “together”  fligere “to strike”.9 We therefore can see religious conflict as a disagreement drown out through religion. However, in Nigeria, religious conflict does not only carry religious motive but also politically inclined such that according to Marshall, recently, the president of Nigeria was forceful in saying the Nigerian conflict has nothing to do intrinsically with religion, that is used as an excuse by politicians’10. Nigeria, in view, is a country blessed with vast geographical landmarks, a nation with vast ethnic groups and many dialects with major languages, English, Yoruba, Igbo, and Hausa. It has three major religions which are Islam, Christianity, and African traditional religion. But specifically, the first two are notable while the last is not notable. In a journal entitled, curbing violence in Nigeria (11): the Boko haram insurgency, it is noted that;

Nigeria is a fractured state’. It is rich but Nigerians are poor, many extremely so,… its members are from different ethnic, political, and religious communities; when they agree on how to share the spoils, all is well, but when they disagree, they politicize, manipulate and instrumentalize ethnoreligious and regional differences. With the failure of governance and development, an ever-increasing number of ethnic militias, separatist groups, and millenarian religious movements are being mobilized, both for self-defense and for pressing ideological and practical goals...11

                    In plateau one of the states in Nigeria, precisely, the capital of Jos. There have been series of rivalry between different groups, therefore changing their license plate as “Home of peace and tourism”12 to the home of crises and religious conflict, this was what Campbell and Harwood meant when they maintained that;

But Jos is no longer a West African paradise. Bloody “religious” riots, ostensibly between Christians and Muslims in 2001, 2008, and 2010, split the community. The latest round, starting in 2011, continues. According to the council on foreign relations’ Nigeria security tracker (NST), there have been 785 sectarian related deaths in Plateau state alone between May 29, 2011, and June 30, 2013. Between January and June 2013, 481 people were killed; 61% of the total since May 2011…13

                    Furthermore, no religious conflict in the nation is purely religious without ethnicity playing its way in it. Nigeria, as a nation, is bound by various ethnicities or ethnic groups, thus Higazi noted that ‘the dominant discourses in the conflict refer to political exclusion on the basis of ethnicity and religion…14. As regards the political end in which religion is used as a means, it must be noted that violence in Jos is as a result of, ‘…discrimination and bias in government, and the narrow ethnic and religious politics among both Christians and Muslims increased tension and polarization along communal lines’15. The fact that religion and politics are deeply interwoven in Nigeria is exemplified from the Islamic religion such at Igboin stated that:

When one observes the trend of these actual and attempted attacks, it is noticeable that… Muslim people are involved and that Islam as a religion has received a negative public image leading to Islamophobia, the radicalization of the religion, and a reinforced, deliberated or inadvertent interest in the debate on the symbolizes between religion and politics…16

                    However, it is a crystal that the most religion that has caused the conflict is nothing more than Islam. In recent techno-centric times, the religion has been at a long-headed war with modern and techno-logical advancement stating that Islam embraces a composite view of life, which incorporates both the sacred and temporal spheres into a single and undifferentiated whole with a divine mandate or guidance. These structures are perceived as incompatible with modernity and its pluralist values…17. Therefore, the removal of God therefore, as perceptibly done by the west, is an invitation to jihad in contemporary society…18

                    Another important issue in that the cause of conflict is that there is the fear of domination. This is aptly stated when Higazi elucidated that ‘the dominant discourses in the conflicts refer to,… on the Muslim, and fears of religious and cultural domination among plateau Christians’.19 Furthermore, Higazi noted that, ‘ there is much political propaganda, inciting religious and cultural fears- such as the Muslim conspiracy to Islamize Nigeria…’20 while speaking on the cause of ethic- religious conflict, Owutu noted that, ‘One of the main causes of this problem is mostly the struggle between rival ethnic groups or organizations seeking to maintain or gain control of state power’.21 He elucidated further that:

 When one group gains access to power, it uses state institutions to distribute economic and political benefit preferentially to their ethnic brethren, discrimination against subordinate group members. Consequently, this aggravation a sense of shared deprivation and strengthens identification with their group, thereby providing a basis for political mobilization along ethnic line.22

               Another sacrosanct point is noted by Owutu as the cause of religious conflict which Akowonjo described as the indigenous and settlers division.23 This is notable according to these two writers in the plateau ethnic and religious crisis.24 Furthermore Ibrahim noted by Owutu explain that ‘religion and ethnicity were the major variables that influence the 2004 ethnic-religious reprisal attacks in Kano state…’25 All through to 2009 before the emergence of the sect known as Boko Haram, there have been causes of religious conflict from 1990. In May 1990, in Zaria (Kaduna state), there were disturbances in Zaria during which property belonging to mainly Christians was destroyed. So also in December 1990, in Kano where there were riots by maitatsine sect, where 4,177 people died and extensive properties were destroyed.26 It is worthy to note that immeasurable lives had been lost while properties had been burnt and displaced owing to religious conflict in Nigeria. However, what is the solution? This calls for religious dialogue among the religions involved. Inter-religious dialogue is done in other to promote peace, security, and most especially, to erase the prejudices of the fundamentalist. The truth is, instead of us fighting to kill or to maim in the course of protesting that our religion is worthy above all others, we must recognize at the back of our minds what Comte sees as the religion of humanity which in my own microscopic eyes, calls for the sanctity of humanity and human lives. Similarly, according to Kaigama, ‘there must be a shift from competitiveness to genuine encounter.  Meaningful dialogue between communities is needed… we need to reclaim its integrity and promote peace and reconciliation’.27 But what then do we mean by dialogue;

Dialogue is an encounter of people of different religions and faiths in an atmosphere of freedom and openness for each partner to listen and understand himself and the other. One person speaks and another listens and responds and vice versa. [Furthermore] dialogue is working and walking together in search of what is good and right with the desire of living together and in communion. Dialogue is living together in spite of our differences…28

And moreover, the understanding of the nature of God is a perennial problem as opposed to the simple view of man’s sanctity of life. However, the God-consciousness is ultimately different in these two religions while the object ‘God’ is universally indifferent from these two religions. What entails the conflictuum in these two religions is nothing other than the perception of God but phenomenologically speaking; reality is indifferent and can never be tied to any one of these religions. If it can, this will be major havoc of God negating his absoluteness. By value of religious dialogue cum tolerance, man sanctity of life depends on the golden rule, a simpliciter that sustains the life of everyone. If both religions emphasize strictly the golden rule, the religious conflict would be thinking of the then and not of the now. Comparatively, ‘he who knows one knows none’ in the science of religion, the knowledge and belief of Christianity can never be used to justify the knowledge of belief and others, and neither can the other be able. It is therefore important that both religions must see themselves as human regardless of the belief and their knowledge.    


               However, all written above is just an interview of what the researcher intends to explain in the research work. The further exposition would be given in the research work.

1.2      Statement of the problem

   At the height of religious crisis and conflict, is religious bigotry, biases, and prejudices which have resulted in the maiming of various individuals as a result of one religion claiming to be superior, more important than the other. Furthermore, the inability of the government to manage the challenges faced also poses another form of problem. diversity is not the problem parse but the interplay is that of the inability to join each religion under one single and formidable government apart from religious diversity, is also cultural diversity, Therefore, it can be summed up as “religious cultural diversity” posing a fundamental and perennial problem within the state. It is as a result of the above problem or issue that calls for religious dialogue to eradicate such preconceived conceptions and notions and also to put an end to the killing and destruction of various properties.

1.3      Aims and objectives

   It is of absolute necessity to note that Nigeria is a country of multi-ethnic groups and built on religious pluralism.

      This research work mainly aims at determining the solution to religious bigotry which is a mechanism for violence, conflict, and crises. It also aims at explaining what religious conflict is and also enables various adherents of various religions to see the similarities as well as the differences between their faith, enabling them to see that no religion is great or better than the other.

1.4          Limitation and scope

Due to the wideness of the country, the research work would not be able to get primary sources from the victims involved in religious conflict. Furthermore, there would be a financial constraint which would serve as a limitation. But the researcher shall try as much as possible to gather facts, even when he encounters books that will be detrimental due to their own biases and prejudice.

1.5          Methodology

   The method I will adopt during the course of this research work will be analytical. It will analyze comparatively religions in the country, so as to provide a meaningful resolution. It shall also focus largely on secondary materials which are textbooks, journals, newspapers, online materials. Etc.

1.6          Definition of terms

Religion; is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural system, and world views that humanity to an order of existence.29

Conflict; A serious incompatibility between two or more opinions, principles, or interests.30

      Nigeria; A republic in West Africa: members of the commonwealth of nations formerly a British colony and protectorate. 356,669 sp. mi.(923,773 sp. km). Capital: Abuja. 31

Solution; The method or process of solving a problem, or the answer to or disposition of a problem.32

1.7        Conclusion

In conclusion, this chapter has explained briefly what the research is all about. It has explained what conflict is and what religious conflict is and not only that but has also explained it within the scope. The following chapter shall therefore review the works of scholars who have contributed immensely to the research.


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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)


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