SAVINGS MOBILIZATION FAR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA BANKING INDUSTRY (CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC) CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is universally acknowledged that the banking including play a catalytic role in t he process of economic growth and development. This acknowledgement is reinforced by contemporary conceptualism to the effect that banks are a veritable vehicle for mobilizing resources from su7plus units and tempting same to deficit unit. Banks constitute perhaps the most important segment of the financial market and played and a dominate vote in not mobilizing savings, but also allocating them for investment purposes.
In Nigeria, domestic savings rate is relatively low compared to most other developing counties with the same for capital income level. In the past, investment rates were high and hence there was no problem for raising funds.
Under the present economic dispensation, the companions or the drive for savings deposit has been stepped up by banks and non- bank financial institutions. It is Hoover not sufficient because the range and type of financial assets available are equally important. There is a wide range of saving instruments offered banks and non – bank financial institutions in Nigeria today.
However, most of the voluntary and non – contractual financial savings consist of savings and time deposit. Although other types of deposit such as savings certificate, premium savings bonds play any a miner rate, banks and non – bank (Moncial Institutions are today competing strongly among them instruments including additional frame benefits almost banks are now offering contractual forms of savings aimed at persuading depositors to invest in long term deposits.
Another area some banks are foreseeing to mobilize funds today is the montage saving: because large number of Nigerians need accommodation of their own but fund it difficult with their meager income. Interest payment a demand deposits accounts has also some positive impact on the propensity to save. Bank have also been allowed by the government to open domaliary account for Nigerian exporters in which proceed of experts can be paid or saved until when they are needed. Transaction costs related to operating a new accounts and making deposits and withdrawals are now be coming relatively easier particularly for small savers. There is also the pension scheme which seeks to induce depositors to invest small sums of money over a specified period of time in the hope of receiving a stream of benefits upon reacting the age of retirement.
Conversely the crisis of confidence in our banks is a great set bank for the banking system. In the past the majority of those who patronized the banks did so in order to find safer place for their money. And for many years bank in the country were the character of currency store house. But because of the lack of confidence in banks today s sizeable amount of Nigerians keep their currency or cash at home and this marks of most of cash unpaired by the banks. According to withstanding et al (1996:133), this one depositors resulting to cash drains. In the broadcast sense a cash drain refers to any kind of cash loss suffered by a bank.
This winders the financial intermediaries function of intermediation. Most of our industries depend on commercial bank assistance in form of overdraft short term and long loans for effective operation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Income posses the greatest constraint to savings mobilization. The generally low level of income among the people in Nigeria is a limiting factor to savings mobilization. The inadequate banking facilities in the economy in general and the rural areas in particular also constitute on obstacle to wide savings mobilization.
Growing frequency of incidences of found, insider abuses and malpractice which all combine in on unholy alliance to erode public confidence in financial institutions and do painful damage to whatever level of banking habit has been developed.
Another factor that may affect savings mobilization is the absence of affective a realistic interest rate policy that rewards savers with adequate return on their savings. It is argued that in as mush as the rate of interested adjusted for inflation various negative. Savings are likely to remain low. Perhaps the greatest problem in this country is that we run a cash economy. The handers the financial intermediaries from performing their functions. The practice constrains banning systems ability to mobilize funds with the consequence that banks create small mount of deposit in comparison to amount demanded as loan by the economy.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF ITS STUDY
The aim of the study is to examine available ways of achieving greater mobilization of savings and its efficient and effective channeling for economic growth the research aims at .
Recommending measures for improving greater mobilization of domestic resources in our bank. Identifying the means throughout which the mobilized funds can effectively which the channeled to the growth and development of economy. Identifying the effect of interest rate mobilization of domestic savings. Identifying the effect of bank distress in deposit acquisition.
Determining the effects of income earned to savings mobilization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
(1) Has there been an improvement measure towards achieving greater dogmatic resources in our bank?
(2) Does the mobilization of domestic savings contribute in the economic growth of the economy?
(3) Does the interest rate charges on the mobilization of domestic savings positive?
(4) Does the bank distress syndrome have any significant effect to the deposit acquisition?
(5) Does the propensity to save income earned have effect on the mobilized savings of the bank?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
To determine the validity and volubility of the information gathered the following hypothesis were formulated.
(1) H0: There has been no improvement measure towards achieving greater domestic resources in our bank
H1: There has been improvement measures towards achieving greater domestic resources in our bank .
(2) H0: The mobilization of domestic saving and development of the economy.
H1: Mobilization of domestic savings does contribute in the growth and development of the economy.
(3) H0: The interest rate has no positive effect to the mobilization of Domestic savings.
H1: The interest rate has a positive effect to the mobilization of domestic savings.
4. H0: The bank distress has no significant effect to the deposit acquisition.
5. H0: There is no significant relationship between income earned of the people and the mobilization of domestic savings by the bank.
H1: There is significant relationship between income earned of the people and the mobilization of domestic savings by the bank.
H1: There is significant relationship between income earned of the people and the mobilization of domestic savings by the bank. 1:Hh
(Iii) H0: There is no significant relationship between the mobilization of domestic savings and economic development.
H1: There is a significant relationship between the mobilization of domestic savings and economic development.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study intends to elicit body of knowledge and understanding of the problem of mobilizing domestic savings by banks. It is expected. That of the recommendations of this research are implemented it will help to change the banking habits of people. It will also help the managers and staff of banking industry in Nigeria to improve on their fund mobilization strategy.
Researchers / students, lectures and the generated public will also fund the findings and recommendations of their research of value various interest areas, especially those who may wish to carry out further study on the topic in any other relate filed.
1.7 SCOPE LIMITATION AND DELIMITATIONS
There study examines the mobilization of domestic savings for economic growth and development. The study covers on the need for mobilizing domestic savings, the strategies employed by banks in mobilizing these savings and the problems associated with the mobilization. It also takes a general view on the ways of improving greater mobilization of domestic resources by the bank which all in turn enhances economic growth.
The researcher broadly examines the research topic as a whole and then narrowed it down on the effort of the union bank of Nigeria PLC in mobilizing these domestic funds certain constraints were encounter by the researcher during this study they include :-
TIME: - Time was a major constraint, bearing in mind that the work had to be handled done side other academic responsibilities of the researcher and coupled with the short time required to submit this work due to a very short semester.
FINANCE : This was another factor as the researcher funds the cost of gathered and analyzing information (both primary and secondary, costs of typesetting, photocopying materials and binding and other expenses necessary for the effective completion of this work to be too exorbitant.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SAVINGS: This is that part of income that is not consumed immediately but deferred for investment or future consumption.
DOMESTIC SAVINGS: This consist savings from the citizens of the country and not from foreigners.
CBN: Central Bank of Nigeria the apex financial institution in the country.
NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY: This countries of the banking institutions in the country which include the commercial banks, Merchant banks, development banks etc. with the control Bank at the Apex.
UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC: This is of the leading banks in the country both by deposit and assets wish 283 branches touching.
BANKER: A banker could be send to be one who works in on institution licensed to carry on the business of banking.
DEPOSITORS: These are bank customers who keep money or value with the bank on contractual terms.
DISTRESS: A bank may be classified distress when it is unable to meet the bank examination rating system.
RURAL BANKING : This involves the establishment of banks in rural areas to cultivate banking habit among the rural dovellers..