COMPARISON OF LOCALLY EXCAVATED SAND WITH RIVER SAND IN TERMS OF STRENGTH IN SANDCRETE BLOCKS.(NSUDE AS CASE STUDY).

COMPARISON OF LOCALLY EXCAVATED SAND WITH RIVER SAND IN TERMS OF STRENGTH IN SANDCRETE BLOCKS.(NSUDE AS CASE STUDY).

CHAPTER ONE   INTRODUCTION

Project Topics and Research Project Materials 

 

This research work means to determine the different properties of sandcrete blocks moulded with a locally excavated sand, in terms of compressive strength, durability and cost and economic importance, and that of River Sand.  And after, compare the two strengths of the sandcrete which will help in recommending the right give the desired strength for the designed strength for a particular purpose.

       NSUDE as case study, Nsude is in Udi, Enugu west, Enugu State.

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Sandcrete is a yellow-white building material made from a binder (Portland cement), sand in a ratio of circa 1:8, and water. Sometime other ingredients may be added to reduce the amount of Portland cement such as “pozzolanas and rice husk ash”. Sandcrete is similar but weaker than mortan for which the ratio is 1:5.

Sandcrete is usually used as hollow rectangular blocks similar to concrete masonry units, often 45cm (18”) wide, 15cm (5.9”) thick and 30cm (12”) with hollows that run from top to bottom and occupy around one third of the volume of the block.

1.2  STRENGTH AND USAGE

       The final compressive strength of sandcrete can be as high as 4.6N/mm2 which is much less than concrete’s 40N/mm2. Sandcrete is unsuitable for load-bearing columns, and is mainly used for

       walling of a house

-      making a fence

-      Septic tank and soak away tank’s

-      Building a generator’s house.

In Nigeria, measured strength of commercial available sandcrete blocks was found to be between 0.5 and 1N/mm2, which is well below the 3.5N/mm2 that is legally required. This development may be due to the need of the manufacturers to keep the price low, and since the main cost-factor is the Portland cement, they reduce that, which results in a block that starts behaving more like loose sand.

1.3  SANDCRETE BLOCK SIZES

They are many different types of blocks used in modern building, they include:

9”  hollow blocks (450mmx225mmx225mm) 6” hollow blocks (450mmx150mmx225mm) 6” solid blocks (450mmx150mmx225mm) 5” solid blocks (450mmx125mmx225mm) 9” solid blocks (450mmx225mmx225mm)

1.4  CONSTITUENT MATERIALS OF SANDCRETE BLOCKS

These include cement, fine aggregate (sharp sand) and water.

1.4.1 CEMENT

This refers to any adhesive and the material used in connection with block and it is referred to as “hydraulic cement” because the setting and hardening depends on the preserve of water. The cement widely used in civil work is called “Ordinary Portland Cement”.

1.4.2      FINE AGGREGATE

The two major types of sand used are white and coloured sand. The sand were not free from materials such as dust, silt, tree roots etc. The sources of sand include pits, rivers and sea.

1.4.3      WATER

       Any type of water available can be used to mould sandcrete blocks. This includes water from stream, rivers, boreholes etc.

1.5  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Apart from bad mixing ratios, which happen even some sandcrete blocksproducers add more yield of blocks, some other things can cause blocks to be in bad condition which can affect the quality of the sandcrete produced.

1.5.1      USING OF BAD CEMENT

Due to the prevailingadverse economic conditions, some sandcrete block makers tend to go for very cheap cement which may not have the required quality to bind a solid block. These block break soon after they are made. Some cement sellers who had cement keptin stock for so long sell it at give away price to the sandcrete block makers if the notice that the quality of the cement has detoriated.

1.5.2 RE-BAG CEMENT

Another thing to note with cement is that some cement sellers re-bag cement, removing some  quantity of cement or put low quality cement product in a bag of a high quality and trust cement brand. Theration you thought you are using to produce a given quality has been compromised and it will produce a low quality block that can easily break even before it is being used for the project.

1.6 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

This project research will help us to understand the different strength of sandcrete blocks produced with locally excavated sand and River sand. This will also help to know the properties of Nsude sand after laboratory test has been carried out. This will help us in determining the moulding methods and properties of sandcrete blocks. These properties are determined by the ratio of block constituents such as cement, water and sand.

1.7  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this project work is limited to obtaining the comparison of locally excavated sand with River sand in terms of strength in sandcrete blocks.(Nsude as case study).

1.8  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

To help us understand the strength of sandcrete blocks produced with locally excavated sand and River sand in Nsude. To help us determine the properties of Nsude sand after carrying out laboratory test.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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