Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen accidentally discovered x-rays in 1895 while conducting some experiments in his laboratory (Yochum and Rowe 2005). The “X” in x-rays represented the unknown ray as Roentgen did not know what to name the invisible rays. One of the significant aspects of this discovery was the development of the clinical radiography which allows us to “see” the internal structures of the body especially bony tissue. Although the x-ray was considered an excellent diagnostic imaging tool, the harmful aspect of radiation could not be ignored (Yochum and Rowe 2005). Since its discovery, it has been of immense value in the evaluation of skeletal disorders (Yochum and Rowe 2005; Kendrik et al., 2001). Most patients requiring medical attention for low back pain have routine x-rays taken of the lumbosacral spine as part of the initial evaluation. The radiographs may be evaluated utilizing the ABCS approach (A = Alignment; B = Bone; C = Cartilage; S = Soft tissue). Routinely two views are taken anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (L) views. Igbinedion and Akhigbe (2011) recorded that transition vertebrae cause low back pain. Transition vertebrae involved the downward migration of L5 (sacralisation) or upward migration of S1 (lumbarisation) (Igbinedion and Akhigbe, 2011).Igbinedion and Akhigbe (2011); Osunwoke et al., (2009), however, recorded that 32.3% of their patients had transitional vertebrae, of which 5.9% had lumbarisation and 26.4% sacralisation. In that same study, 2.4% males and 3.6% females had lumbarisation and 15.7% males and 10.7% females had sacralisation. In the study recorded by Uduma et al., (2013), lumbarisation was seen in four cases (7.02%) with equal male to female ratio. The earliest age of discovery was 4th decade. This late presentation of an anatomical variant is probably due to its asymptomatic nature. Symptomatology, therefore, arose on receipt of secondary spondylosis. However, Igbinedion and Akhigbe (2011), did not observed any statistical correlation between transitional vertebrae with sex, age group, body mass index, osteophyte formation, vacuum phenomenon, disk degeneration, and spondylolisthesis. Measurement of the lumbar spine radiographic parameters may be useful in the investigation of low back pain (Amonoo-Kuofi 1992) and in the design and development of spinal implants and instrumentation (Zhou et al., 2000).

The radiographic parameters evaluated during an assessment of the lumbosacral vertebrae are:

Lumbosacral angle (LSA) Lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) Sacral Inclination angle (SIA) Lumbosacral disc angle (LDA)

Lumbosacral Angle (LSA): Lumbosacral angle is also known as sacral base angle (SBA) or Ferguson’s angle (Yochum and Rowe 2005). There is very little research available on the precise causes of LSA alterations and the effects on spinal biomechanics. The available data often differ in opinion. Chung et al., (1981) in a study on 132 symptomatic Korean males and females reported that males have a slightly greater LSA than females. On the contrary, Fernand and Fox (1985) reported a significantly higher mean LSA in females; the males had a mean LSA of 43.3° while the females had a mean of 47.2°. However, Rosok and Peterson (1993) noted no difference in the mean LSA between males and females. LSA was noted to be greater in females who had a history of previous pregnancy than females who had no offspring (Bryner and Moussali 1992). Middleditch and Oliver (2005) reported that the LSA is greater in females during child-bearing years than in post-menopausal females and the difference was presumed to be due to hormones. Few studies have examined the effects of body type and size on LSA (Andrews et al., 2001; Brunaugh et al., 2002). There is paucity of data on the effects if obesity and excess body fat distribution on LSA. Andrews et al., (2001) reported no correlation between BMI and LSA. This study was however said to be unreliable due to its inability to differentiate between abnormal BMI and WHR. Ridola et al., (1994) noted that in the obese individual, the weight of the trunk at the base of the sacrum is displaced anteriorly. This displacement will cause the pubis to rotate posteroinferiorly, while the sacrum tends to rise superiorly and assume a more horizontal orientation thus increasing the LSA. Brunaugh et al., (2002) noted a significant correlation between BMI and WHR, and LSA. A wide range of variation in this measurement has been noted. Yochum and Rowe (2005) reported a range of 26 - 57º with a mean of 41º ± 7º. They also noted that the value increases from the recumbent to upright position by 7 - 12º. Kim et al., (2006) noted a normal value of 39.8º ± 8º with a range of 11 - 58º. These findings show that the LSA varies widely among individuals. There is no consensus of opinion on the significance of either a decreased or an increased LSA. An increased angle has been implicated as a mechanical factor in low back pain by increasing shearing and compressive forces on the lumbosacral posterior joints (Bogduk 2005; Yochum and Rowe 2005).

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper

    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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