EFFECTS OF SOIL EROSION

 EFFECTS OF SOIL EROSION 

2.2   LITERATURE REVIEW   

The effect of soil erosion is a worldwide phenomena particularly because of its adverse effects on man. As a result a lot of literature exists on these issues. A review of the ones relevant for this study will be discussed.

EFFECTS OF SOIL EROSION/ CAUSES

Soil erosion has been identified as a serious environment problem with a multiplicity of social and economic consequences. Soil erosion is a disastrous form of environment degradation whose effects is multi- dimensional. Accord to Michael Pidiwirmy (2010), past erosion has an effect on a soil erodibility for a number of reasons, many exposed subsurface soils on eroded site tend to be more erodible than the original soil, because of their poorer structure and lower organic matter. The lower nutrient levels often associated with subsoil contribute to lower crop yield and generally poorer crop cover which in turn provides less crop protection for the soil. He further expantiate by saying that the implications of soil erosion extend beyond the removal of valuable topsoil, crop emergence, growth and yield are directly affected through the loss of natural nutrient and applied fertilizers with the soil. Sediment can be deposited on down slope properties and can contribute to road damage. Michael Pidwirmy (2010) Ofomata (1986) has explicitly stated some of the effects to include loss of properties both home and farm crops, loss in finances and impediment to Urbanization. It should be emphasized that the totality of these negative consequences contributes negatively to production. In addition, damage to vital urban infrastructure such as roads and communication links include adverse effects on sources of water supply for domestic use. According to Aziegbe (2004) one of the major effects of soil erosion in our environment is the development of dip-pits. The causes of soil erosion have been intensively discussed during the past 40 years. Soil erosion is a natural erosion process that is enhanced by human activity Richter (1998) and occurs in all Landscapes and under different land uses. Beside the influence of human activities, soil erosion processes are also caused by morphometric characteristics of the land surface, the erosive force of rainfall and the erodibility of soil and soil surface. Toy et- al (2002) gave detailed definition of soil erosion features and processes such as sheet erosion and inter rill erosion, rill erosion, as well as ephemeral and permanent gully erosion. They also describe the influence of changing land use on stream channel erosion. Hugg (1982) defines sheet flood, sheet- wash and sheet flow in terms of hydrologic and geomorphic based classification system

Sheet flood is unconfined floodwater moving downhill Sheet flow is a high- frequency, low magnitude overland flow Sheet wash is superseded by the more meaningful term, rain- wash, which is defined as the washing action of rain on slopes.

          The cause and processes of soil erosion are connected as it effects the environment. Intensity of soil erosion is mainly influenced by three factors

Erosivity of water Erodibility of soil Human activities.

          Physical aspects of erosivity forces of water are independent of the locally prevailing climate conditions.  In reality, different climatic condition reveals deferent erosivity forces of rainfall. Van Dijk et –al (2002) critically review published studies of rainfall intensities and kinetic energy in order to derive a generally predictive exponential equation. Next to erosivity by rainfall drops (splash effects) forces by surface runoff (overland flow) are part of the erosivity. Saturated overland flow and surface runoff occur both in tropical semi-arid and semi-humid landscapes. The erodibility of soil has not been rigorously defined (Bryan et-al 1989) - Bryan (2000) highlights the importance of the inherent resistance of soil to erosion process. Result of his research show that many components of erosion response, such as threshold hydraulic conditions for rill erosion, rill network configuration and hill slope sediment delivery, are strongly affected  by spatially variable and temporally dynamic soil properties (Bryan 2000) Veihe (2002) examines the spatial variable of erodibility of soil types based on a case study in Ghana. The estimation of factor from soil type can in general be problematic because soil classifications are often not based on parameters reflecting erodibility. Erodibility of tropical soil is highly dependent on grain size distribution, clay content and organic carbon content, which influence the stability of soil aggregates. Lebissonais (1996) identifies four main mechanisms by which soil aggravates break down slaking, differential swelling, raindrop impact and physio-chemical dispersion caused by osmotic stress. Barthes and Roose (2002) analyze topsoil aggregate stability and compared these results to susceptibility to erosion. Mbagwu and bazzoffi (1998) investigate the resistance of dry soil aggregate against rain drops. Valnis et- al (2005) correlate inter- rill erosion to aggregate instability, rainfall intensity and slope gradient.

Infiltration rates of soils are also influenced by the morphometric characteristics of the land surface. Yair and Raz- yassif (2004)

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

    Click here to complete this article - How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

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